Beekeeping is the oldest craft. Previously, people who were engaged in the cultivation of bees, called boaters. This name comes from the word board - hollow, created by artificial means. Thus, the first man-made beehive species appeared. With the development of the industry, the type of housing for honey workers has changed.
The boards were replaced by bulky decks and lighter dummies. In some regions, used clay containers. They were replaced by hives, already more similar to modern ones. Only at the beginning of the XIX century the world saw the first frame beehive. What types of hives exist in our time, let's talk today in our article.
Classification of bee dwellings
A modern beekeeper can choose a hive according to his taste. Indeed, in the field of beekeeping uses many types of hives. They are distinguished by design, volume, materials and functionality. To choose a suitable hive means to ensure the normal functioning of the bees.
Depending on the design, beehives are divided into collapsible and non-collapsible. The latter are a relic and are practically not used in our time, as it is very inconvenient to work with them. Therefore, now all the hives have a collapsible design. If in the first collapsible hives, honeycombs were attached to rulers, then over time all beekeepers switched to frame hives. One bee house can accommodate several frames with honeycombs, and the number of frames can be easily changed.
In the direction of the frame hives are divided into horizontal and vertical. In horizontal ("sun beds") is one body, and it expands in both directions. Recumbent hives make it easy to change the number of frames, but they are heavy and bulky. The volume of the vertical "risers" can be increased by adding upper superstructures. This form is easy and mobile.
The best qualities of recumbent and standing hives are combined by combined devices. In these hives used several sections, separated by a partition. This allows you to change their volume in any direction.
In turn, both the “sun beds” and the “risers” have several modifications. Each of them differs from the others by its characteristic features. In addition, the types of hives differ in function. For example, individual houses are built for wintering queens or for scientific observation of the bees, their vital activity and state of health.
This type is most common among domestic apiaries. The classic Dadan hive is made of spruce boards. It attracts beekeepers simplicity of design and spaciousness. Such a bee house accommodates 12 frames and gives the opportunity to complete the hull as the bee family grows.
In addition to one case with frames, you can make add-ons in the form of shops with half-frames. Instead of the store, you can put another body, it all depends on the needs of the beekeeper. In winter, the bees are in the nesting compartment, and in the spring, as the bee family grows, they substitute additional stores or a second building.
This multicase bee house is the brainchild of the French beekeeper Roger Delon. The creator tried to reproduce the natural habitat of bees, taking into account their needs and peculiarities of dwelling organization. The model is based on the shape of a hollow - a natural habitat of bees.
A feature of this design is compactness. This is very convenient when the beekeeper does not have a large territory. In this hive there are no various partitions and ventilation holes. The air enters and leaves through the entrance door located at the bottom of the body due to natural circulation.
Such a hive makes it possible to keep several families in the apiary and simplifies the care of the bees. The hive Rue consists of 6 buildings, each of which is located on 10 frames. Shells are added one by one, as the bee family masters the previous space. Such structures are not suitable for every climate. Due to the constant rearrangement of the buildings, there is a chance that the bee's home will become overcooling, therefore it is recommended to use the Ruta’s hives in areas with a warm climate.
The increase in the incidence of bees has led to the fact that cluster hives are gaining increasing popularity among beekeepers. Their main difference is in the thickness of the walls. The cassette-like feature has thinner partitions. Thus, the bees independently maintain a microclimate in their home.
In addition, the cassette structure is necessarily made from natural material (spruce or pine) and is not painted. For strength and moisture resistance, all parts are impregnated with wax using a building dryer. In such an environment, the bees feel safe and less prone to various diseases.
Horizontal designs are perfect for novice beekeepers. Their ease of maintenance and simplicity of construction will allow them to master the basic skills of beekeeping. This evidence is quite roomy, mostly there are models for 20 frames. In addition, the warmed sides allow the bees to feel great during the winter.