Krasnogorbatovskaya breed of cows among a number of breeds of national selection occupies one of the leading positions. This is truly Russian cattle, which is well adapted to local climatic conditions, and also has a high nonspecific immunity. In particular, cows are resistant to tuberculosis and leukemia. We learn about them together.
Red Gorbatov breed of cows belongs to the combined or meat and dairy type. Today it belongs to the most famous species bred in the territory of our state. And it is easy to explain. The fact is that created at the beginning of the XIX century, this cow is an improved type of Great Russian cattle.
By crossing the local population in the former Gorbatovsky district (Nizhny Novgorod province), the new breed gained a phenomenal ability to adapt to the harsh climatic conditions. Later, breeding work gave these animals a very high immunity to a number of then common diseases. Consider the history of the formation of the breed in more detail.
History of origin and development
The Red Gorbatov Cow has been bred in our country since the middle of the 19th century. Initially, livestock was developed and used only in the Nizhny Novgorod region. However, the breed later became known in the Ivanovo, Vladimir regions and in the Chuvash ASSR. For breeding work, two types of cows were used - Great Russian and Tyrolean. Since 1970, the improvement of this breed has already been made at the local level without attracting foreign animals.
But the Gorbatovskaya Red did not keep its popularity for a long time, after a short period of time it was supplanted by more productive dairy breeds. Unfortunately, the population of these cows in Russia is sharply reduced. Today, out of the total number of breeds and breeds used, Krasnogorbatov makes up even less than 0.1% of the total. This, of course, is very small, so the breed is on the verge of extinction and is subject to protection. The best gene pool of the red Gorbatov cow is preserved today in the Republican gene pool.
Despite the fact that Krasnogorbatovskaya breed is practically not used in the industrial meat and dairy direction, these cows are popular in private livestock raising. Because of its low weight and height, the animal is unpretentious to feed and conditions of detention. In addition, they survive well and show good productive results even in cold regions of the country.
Today, two plants are engaged in breeding red Gorbatov cows: the Zimenki breeding plant in the Vladimir region and the Ababkovskoye company in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
The cows of the Krasnogorbatovskaya breed are only one red color from which they probably have their own name. Breed standards allow markings on the lower part of the body (on the belly), in the area of the udder, and also on the tail. Bull-calves differ in more bright and saturated color, passing into black in places. A distinctive feature - light horns with dark ends.
Red humpback cows of low height, according to dimensional data belong to the group of small breeds. The average height at withers is 120 centimeters, weight - from 420 to 460 kilograms. Although there are some cases where females gained weight about 800 kilograms, and males - about 1000 kilograms. But this is more rare than the norm.
If you look at the photo, you can see that these cows are well-built, have a slightly elongated body, low legs, a short head, a rather broad chest and neck, and a straight back. They also differ in light, but strong bones. It is important to note that, according to the standard, the Krasnogorbatovskaya breed should have a slightly raised butt, a high set of tail and straight limbs. Phenomena such as drooping, sagging back and saber foot are defects and imperfections of the exterior.
Productivity and use
Red Gorbatov cows are very popular among private livestock owners. First of all, the owners are attracted by the good health indicators of these cows, their resistance to many diseases (brucellosis, leukemia, tuberculosis), and unpretentiousness. At the same time, the last factor is very important in the harsh climate of many regions of our country. The fact is that representatives of this breed are able to maintain a good fatness for a very long time even with a decrease in the quantity and quality of feed. Especially well-developed animals on free grazing.
Of course, the owners of the Krasnogorbat breed and its productive qualities cannot but rejoice. First of all, cows have good meat indicators. With good fattening, the slaughter yield exceeds 55%, in bulls - 62%. Also, the cows give a lot of milk: the average annual milk yield on average is 3000-3500 kilograms of product (up to 5000 kilograms). Very high quality of milk in this breed, but this should be discussed separately.
Excellent taste and high fat content
If you lead this particular breed of cows, you will never regret it. Milk of these cows has excellent qualities: it is very fat - 4.1-4.3% (up to 6%). Today, the products of the red Gorbatov cow occupy a leading position among the products from other Russian breeds in terms of fat content.
In addition, this milk has excellent taste, which makes it very popular for making hard cheese. It is important to note the correct ratio of fat and protein in the product. In the home dairy direction, Krasnogorbatov’s milk is used to make a selected type of cream with a pleasant filling taste.