Kostroma breed of cows is one of the most famous and highly productive in domestic breeding. It refers to the combined or dairy-meat direction. It received its name from the Kostroma region, where it was first received and registered in 1944.
Many farmers know well what these cows look like, since they are often grown in private household farms. These are rather large animals that have strong bones, quickly gaining weight and muscle mass. Color is only gray in various shades. Without knowing how productive this breed is in the dairy direction, one could say that these are cows of meat. Dual use is indicated by an elongated, voluminous udder of the correct form. Look at the photo.
Adult bulls reach a weight of 900 kilograms, cows - 600-650 kilograms. Slaughter yield of meat products - about 65%. However, these cows show good performance in milk production. For example, on average they give about 4,000–5,000 pounds of milk per year. Fat content is up to 3.9%. Today, in terms of the Kostroma breed, breeding work continues to increase the milk fat content.
Dairy record holders
On the basis of the main line another 14 additional ones were created. So, for example, the cows of the Karavaevo breeding plant are known for their high yields - more than 6000 kilograms. It was in this farm that 160 record holders received a milk yield of more than 8,000 kilograms per year and more than 70 milkwoman with a milk yield of more than 9,000 kilograms. Today, the name of the Burenka Thunder, which set a record for the yield of milk - 14203 kilograms and the Novitius - 16252 kilograms of the product for 365 days of lactation, is permanently recorded in the breeding book of the farm.
Breed improvements are made by tide of the Schwyz genotype from the United States. Breeding work is carried out at the plant "Proletary" of the Vladimir region, as well as the "Five-Year Plan" and "12 Years of October" in the Kostroma region.
An interesting history of the formation of this domestic and still quite young breed. For the first time breeding work on its breeding began in the first half of the XIX century in the Kostroma region. There, in 1919, the state farm "Karavaevo" was built, where the first specimens of the breed were obtained. Representatives of local breeds (Babaev and Miska group), as well as Schwyz and Algauz cattle were used in breeding.
The main goal, which was set at its breeding, was to obtain large, hardy cows with high levels of milkiness and fat. That is why experts have carefully selected young with a strong constitution of the body, as well as with the correct milky forms.
Already in 1940, farm workers were able to achieve the first desired results of milk production - the average annual cow's milk yield was 6,310 kilograms. However, even then their record holders were noted. For example, the cow Novit 2 gave 14,115 kilograms of milk with a fat content of almost 4%. At the same time, despite the war times, the state farm continued to delight with its successes, and in 1944 the breed was officially registered.
Interesting! The Kostroma breed also showed a very long lifespan at the Karavaevo State Farm. For example, individual cows were used until the age of 22, which is a very rare rarity in industrial conditions.
Great Award - Recognition
As the great academician, zootechnician of the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences named after Lenin, Efim Fedotovich Liskun, once noted, "this breed has surpassed many foreign ones, including Schwyz and Algauz." For such successful work and contribution to the development of Soviet dairy farming, the state farm Karavaevo was awarded honorary state awards - the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. Moreover, 40 employees of this plant also received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, and more than 200 specialists received government awards.
Spread and dignity
At the present time, the Kostroma breed is successfully bred in Belarus and Russia. As we have said, and at present, dairy qualities are being improved, and productive longevity is also increasing. Kostroma cows are most successfully grown in the Vladimir, Ivanovo, Kostroma regions, as well as in the Republic of Mari-El.
- good meat productivity;
- strong constitution;
- good adaptability to nutrition;
- give strong offspring;
- rapid growth and weight gain;
- excellent dairy quality.
In order to consider in more detail the representatives of this breed, we suggest to look at the photo.Kostroma cows on pastureBurenka Kostroma breedKostroma cow close up