Many probably know that goats are raised not only for the sake of milk and meat, but also to produce high-quality warm wool. However, like any other fur, the skin of these animals requires special skills and abilities. Few people succeed on the first try. Let's try to figure out how to make a goat skin at home.
How to remove the skin?
The skin of a goat, as with sheep, is removed by a layer. To do this, you need to make three cuts on a hanging carcass:
- the first transverse - from the end of one hind leg to the end of the other hind leg through the anal opening;
- the second transverse - from the metacarpal joint of one front leg to the metacarpal joint of the second front leg through the chest;
- longitudinal - from the throat through the chest and stomach to the tail in the middle.
Begin to remove the skin should be from the neck and front legs. To do this, pull off the skin from the body and pull. It is important to note that with a knife you can only slightly trim strong ligaments that connect the skin with the carcass. But be careful not to damage the fur itself. If the animal has a lot of fat and fat, it should also be cut with a knife so that it stays on the meat.
When you reach the hind legs, around the anus, and in females around the genitals, you need to make cuts and only then continue to tighten the fur. Carefully remove with your hands so that there is no meat or fat on the skin. After removal, the material must be expanded or stretched on the frame so that the skin dries out and does not lose shape.
Phased dressing instructions
The highest quality goat skin is obtained if it is crafted immediately after removal, when it is still "warm." However, this opportunity is rarely provided, therefore, it is often carried out its primary conservation. Note that dressing the skin is a very complicated and time-consuming process. That is why many owners of fur and fur animals in order to excrete most often rent their material to a specialist, and do not try to do everything at home themselves. But there are not so many of them and they are not in all regions. Therefore, knowledge of how to properly conduct this entire process will also be useful.
The most popular method of preserving the skin and skin until the time of manufacture is dried salted preservation. What does it mean? This is a kind of salting skin. To do this, a fresh skin needs to be spread on the floor or on the table with the fur inside, that is, the flesh (skin) to the top. If there is leftover meat, they should be scraped off with a sharp knife. Then take the salt and sprinkle it all over the skin, especially the edges. Then we fold the material in an envelope so that the core is on the core. And once again we fold the skin in half, leaving in a convenient container for about three days.
After that, the material should be hung horizontally, upholstered up the ridge line and cleaned in a dry room. Best of all, as practice shows, in the attic. In this form, the skin can be stored for a long time, however, you need to make sure that the mole does not start.
Make sure that the skin is well salted, otherwise it may grind. And this is an extremely negative factor, since after that the hair begins to fall off. Regularly try hair how firmly it holds. On the coarse skin, it is pulled out easily.
So, we have already dry canned skin and now we need to continue to work with it. Pre it needs to be softened. This process is officially called soaking. It is carried out in deep pots, buckets or vats for several days. The skin is soaked usually 2-4 days with shamelessness. Fleshing is the removal of the remaining subcutaneous layer. As a rule, it is carried out with a special machine with a shaft and screw knives. But at home you can use a dead end or spit. Watch the video.
The purpose of this stage and process is to return the skin to its original, as it were, paired state. If the sweeping is performed poorly, the skin will be tough and coarse. That is why it is extremely important to follow some rules.
- Water should be used soft. If there is no soft, with the help of alkali it can be softened manually.
- The water temperature should be around 10-20 degrees.
- The amount of water is calculated by the formula: dry skin weight * 6.
- To hinder the development of putrefactive bacteria, as well as to accelerate soaking, special preparations are used, such as boosters, salt (30-50 grams per 1 liter), soda ash, borax (1 gram per 1 liter).
Petrification and breakdown
The soaked skin needs to be riddled, that is, remove the entire subcutaneous layer and fiber. Also during this process, a breakdown is made, that is, the skin is stretched to better carry out the next stages of the manufacture. At home, the most common method of frustration is carried out on a deck of acute oblique To do this, a deck is put at about an angle of 35 degrees, the skin is put on it with the fur down, and then with light motions the slanting is carried out as scraping the entire top layer.
This process is carried out in a specific sequence: first, from the middle of the skin to the left hind leg, then to the right, then the skin is turned over and the flesh continues on the front.
After removing the upper layer of the dermis, you can proceed to the next stage - pickling. This treatment of skins with a special aqueous solution of acid and salt. This is necessary in order to loosen and dehydrate the collagen fibers of the dermis. After pickling, the well-dried skins are already suitable for further work with fur.
Acetic, sulfuric, hydrochloric and other types of acid can be used to carry out this stage at home. But most often used sulfuric. Table salt in this case is a regulator of the action of the acid. If it is not added, the skin is destroyed. Apply the following solution: 9 grams of sulfuric acid to 1 liter of water plus 50-60 grams of salt to 1 liter of water. Water should have a temperature of 25 degrees. The process time depends on the type of skin, on its core - an average of 10-12 hours.
At the end of this process, the skin color should become white, and the core becomes rough. After pickling, the material should lie down for 10 hours and dry.
Despite the fact that after pickling the skin is already soft and elastic, after another wet it becomes rough again. Therefore, another process should be carried out - tanning. There are a lot of methods for its implementation, but chrome-aluminum tanning is the most popular at home. For this purpose, chromium-potassium and aluminum alum are used. To prepare the solution, you must take the following substances per 1 liter of warm water:
- 50 grams of salt;
- 10 grams of hyposulfite;
- 4 grams of chrome alum and 1.5 aluminum alum;
- 0.5 grams of soda ash.
- First dissolve the salt and hyposulfite.
- Put the skin in the solution and hold for 45 minutes, stirring occasionally.
- After 2 hours, pour in a solution of chrome alum. In this case, first pour in one part, and after about an hour - the second.
- After another 1 hour, pour in a solution of aluminum alum.
After tanning, the skin should turn green.
After regular drying, the skin must be given the desired softness and elasticity. Here apply the method of greasing. To do this, prepare a warm (45 degrees) emulsion of the following ingredients:
- 450 grams per liter of pork or lamb fat;
- 50 grams per liter of fish oil;
- 25 milliliters per liter of ammonia (25%).
You can also take glycerin, egg yolk and salt. Then the prepared lubricant is applied with a sufficiently dense layer on the entire surface of the core and left to soak for 5-8 hours. After drying, the skin is stretched in width and length on the brackets.
The stretched skin is removed and carefully watched, where there are still any irregularities, films that prevent the skin from being plastic. If there are any, a final cleanup is performed on the deck with oblique or sandpaper. The finished skin should be soft and smooth, and should also be well dragged in any direction. The final stage - combing fur. To do this, often use special tools to protect the hair from dust, dirt and caking. After clearing the fur should be fluffy and shine.
Video "dressing skins"
In this video from the discovery cycle of Discovery, you will learn the main stages of making pelts before it goes into the production of fur products.