The formation of layering process is not difficult and not complicated. So can say any experienced beekeeper. But for a beginner, such a procedure is a complete mystery, so we will look at how to make bee beads correctly and what you need to know for this.
First you need to figure out what a bee is? In general, he is a new family, with his queen and working bees. It is formed from strong bee colonies by collecting from them a small number of brood frames and working bees, or dividing them into two even halves. So, it turns out some bees without a bee-mat, and others with an old individual. Then, to the first, either a new maternal individual is planted, or the insects hatch it independently. That's all over, well, if it only describes the process in two words.
In fact, the formation of layering includes many more nuances, without the knowledge of which all the work can go "down the drain." The first thing to remember is that the brood can only be picked from strong families, when they have about 7 frames filled. It is recommended to take only 1-2 frames. Brood is taken along with working bees, preferably not flying. Flight specimens are very aggressive towards the new maternal specimen and can cause its death.
It must be remembered that if strong families are not disbanded before they reach their peak of development, that is, all the frames will be filled, the family will start digging. The formation of bee layers, in addition, is the main means of combating swarming. So, you already have brood and young non-flying bees that will warm and feed the offspring. But while there are no bee-maids, where does it come from?
The first easiest way to get a uterus is to buy it from a mother woman, a person who grows them for sale. The second way is to withdraw the queens yourself. Also practiced is the creation of layers on the fetal, barren and old uterus. There may be options for the selection of brood. It can be collected from one family or from several. In addition, it is possible to form layouts on old bees and on young ones.
But first, it is desirable to decide where young families will be formed? It may be a separate hive or a new multi-body. Houses should be well prepared in advance. The beginning of work in most cases falls in the spring, namely in May. The most favorable temperature is +25 degrees Celsius.
In some regions, work may begin sooner, and in some much later, it all depends on weather conditions. In principle, the main thing that needed to be learned before starting work, we told. Now you can proceed to the most common and effective methods. Next, we propose to watch a video on how to form prefabricated layers for increasing the apiary.
Methods for creating otvodkov
It so happens that it is necessary to quickly form the layering on a large apiary, but there is no second uterus for this. In this case, you can do the following. We find in our apiary a strong family, in which the number of frames with brood from 12 to 17 pieces. Then prepare two identical hives. They are in design and color should be a copy of the house where a strong family lives.
The next day, we are waiting for the flight bees to fly away to collect pollen and nectar. We put new ones near the old hive, open it and equally transfer all frames and close them. Arriving at the end of the day, the bees see in front of them two identical houses identical to the old ones. Then they decide to share in half and hurry to settle down in a new home. Thus, from one family it turned out two, one with an old uterus, another - without a uterus in general. After 4 days you need to inspect the insects. Where there was no maternal individual, the bees were supposed to seal the new queen cells.
Then rejection is carried out with the excision of rejected queen cells. Need to leave no more than four. In addition, if necessary, it is necessary to strengthen the family without a uterus with a sowing frame. After about 24 days, a second inspection is carried out. The young uterus should have made its first seeding. It is necessary to assess the quality and fertility of the uterus. If everything is within the normal range, then the creation of this layer is successful.
Otherwise the division failed. This john-less family is attached to the old womb. The following year, the division proceeds in a new way. This method shows itself well in the usual cycle of work in the apiary. With its help, the year after year the productivity of the apiary rises, and the quality of bee colonies increases. The approximate increase becomes 30% per year, the number of defects does not exceed 15%.
But it happens that you need to quickly increase the productivity of the apiary by at least 50-60%. Then the previous method is absolutely not suitable. To do this, you need to pay attention to the formation of early bee layers. The increase we want with this method will be easily achieved. In practice, precast early rations have shown themselves well.
Layers of bees begin to form when overwintering strong families become so strong that each will have 6-7 frames with brood. 1-2 families of brood are taken from such families and put into a special box. Frames are taken from non-flying young bees, the main thing to follow is not to pick up the uterus. When the box will be 6 frames, you can get to work.
To begin with, we are preparing a new or renovated old beehive under our cuttings. We put frames with brood in the center, a frame of honey (about 4 kg) is added to one side of these frames, and a frame of water is added to the other. These frames with bait before placement should be necessarily heated to 25-30 degrees Celsius. There will be few non-migratory individuals that have been at the brood, therefore, from those families from where the brood was taken, non-flying individuals from 3 more frames are swept away.
Now we close the hive with the cuttings and wait for all the flight individuals to leave it. To do this, just wait 1 day. Now you can add to the new family fetal uterus in the cell. That's all, weeks after 3 the family will be no worse than those with the help of which it was formed, and in another week it will be possible to make layouts from it. You can read more about how to make bees by other methods in our other articles with thematic videos.