The cow has a very large and voluminous digestive system, which has its unusual structure. The fact is that it consists of a number of branches. That is why you can often meet such a question - how many cows have stomachs? We will try to answer it and we.
The stomach of all ruminants (goats, sheep, cows) is very different from the stomach of other domestic inhabitants of the barnyard. However, in Burenka, it is a whole feed factory with separate workshops. There are four cows in total. Each branch has its own purpose for processing food.
However, in the natural understanding, the stomach, that is, the organ where gastric juice is produced, is only its last section, the abomasum. The previous three are parts of the esophagus. See the drawing diagram.The structure of the cow's stomach system
So, the stomach of a cow has four sections: scar, mesh, book and abomasum. All eaten solid food enters the scar, and the liquid - in the book. Let's take a look at the structure and process of digestion of feed. This is very important if you are a novice livestock breeder or are just about to buy a cow.
The scar is the largest and the first section of the digestive system, where the mass just eaten passes through the primary processing with enzymes. The scar is divided into three bags: cranial, dorsal and ventral. See the drawing. The muscles of these bags are reduced every 60 seconds, grinding food. This is the first stage of digestion.
After grinding, the contents of the scar passes a repeated chewing gum. To do this, feed in small portions regurgitate and chew. In cows, the whole gum process takes about 5-7 hours a day.The chewed gum is no longer held up in the rumen and is immediately sent to the third section of the stomach - the book. Here she is already undergoing more complex enzyme processing.
Netting is the second section of the digestive system of a cow. However, it is important to note that many foreign scientists do not single it out as an independent department. The fact is that swallowed food enters the esophagus immediately into a certain groove (see picture), and it, in turn, is connected to the net. Thus, the mass is mixed in two sections. That is why in foreign sources there is no separation between the rumen and the mesh; here they are combined into the so-called Reticulo-rumen or net stomach.
The net is also the heaviest conditioned organ of digestion and is a muscular bag in which most of the food eaten is placed. In this section, food is from 20 to 48 hours. The whole process of digestion from the entry of food in the rumen to the removal of waste takes an average of 40 to 70 hours.
The grid and the book are interconnected by a gutter. In calves, it has a tube structure, so their digestion is shortened. As it grows, the gutter opens. The book is the third section of the stomach, which has special partitions resembling the pages of a book. From this such a name.
Here, partially digested food begins to ferment under the influence of special bacteria. This allows you to absorb a huge amount of fiber, which is in vegetable feed. The book is the primary absorption of water and minerals. Complex processes are taking place here, so this section holds only 5% of all food.
The last and perhaps the most important part of the stomach. Here, all the incoming mass of food is processed with gastric juice and protein is absorbed. The rennet also consists of folds and is divided into several zones. Its total capacity is 15 liters. From this section, all the contents are sent to the intestines, from where all the other enzymes are already absorbed into the blood.
Interesting to know! All eaten food at a time in an animal passes through the entire digestive tract for about 2-3 days. Cellulose is absorbed about 12 days.