Do you doubt that it is more profitable to buy compound feed for pigs than to cook it yourself? You do not know how many ingredients should be included? Do you think at what age to start giving it to the pig? Do not ask unnecessary questions, but rather read the article further and find out the answers to everything that interests you.
Features and composition
Today, it is not necessary to wait more than a year to achieve a live weight of a pig at least 100-150 kg. Ask, how much time will it take? And the answer will be this - thanks to the various feeds and additives, this result is achieved when the pig is only half a year old. But there are so many varieties on the market. How to choose the best among all and not overpay? Let's understand this diversity and try to figure out what we need.
Compound feed for piglets is primarily a combination of a variety of feed and feedings, which should provide the pig with all the necessary elements and substances. It should also help to increase the immunity of the animal and increase its daily gain by several times. If disassembled separately, the feed for pigs in composition can be divided into:
- protein foods are primarily legumes, various flours and cakes;
- coarse - hay, bran and various vegetables;
- energy - these include any grain crops;
- various waste - residues of meat production, whey, etc.
Concentrate and high-grade
Compound feed should always combine all types of food and at the same time in the right ratio for the animal. Today, manufacturers produce two types: full-fledged for pigs and concentrate. Full - it is already fully prepared. When using it, additionally feeding the animal with something else is not necessary.
The concentrate is an additional additive to the main feed and is used in case of a shortage in an animal, any substances to improve growth and weight gain. For high-quality production of both the first and second types, state standards (GOSTs) were introduced. To date, the composition and production of feed for pigs and piglets controls GOST R 52255-2004, and concentrates - GOST R 51550-2000. According to these standards, feed should have a permanent composition.
But also some exceptions are not prohibited, for example, from year to year it happens that equivalent nutrient components are replaced. This happens in cases where the company can not get one component, but can get another that is identical to the first. In this case, the replacement is carried out in a ratio of 1/1. Then neither the composition nor the nutritional content suffers. For example, we can say that corn can be easily replaced with wheat, fish meal - with meat, soybean meal - with sunflower and, accordingly, the replacement can be carried out in reverse order too.
Sometimes a complete feed or concentrate can be prepared by prescription with a temporary composition of the components. Here it means that the company has run out of some ingredients and there is no replacement for them. Accordingly, the food was prepared without them and is incomplete. Therefore, always carefully consider the packaging when buying, if there are any corresponding markings. True, the mash with a temporary composition, are very rare, because any company in advance takes care of that the raw materials are always enough with an excess.
It should be separately said for granular, because today it is quite often found on the market. And the thing is that almost all pig breeders who have refused to manufacture food, unanimously prefer granules. They are considered the most acceptable for pigs and belong to a full-fledged feed, and they can also be fed animals all year round until slaughter.
Composition according to GOST
Each manufacturing plant manufactures the mixture according to the recipe, which regulates a certain GOST. However, based on various needs, some ingredients in the recipe can still change, but the quality of the product should remain unchanged. So more expensive and hard-to-reach ingredients for the manufacturer can be replaced with a cheaper equivalent. Then some additives may be added, thus improving the quality of the product. But with all this, they must adhere to the original composition.
On the basis of GOST, the composition of mash for pigs and pigs should include from 6 to 12 components. But in addition to these components, there is also a list of additives that the manufacturer can add to its discretion. For clarity, we give a few factory recipes of granular feed and analyze their nutritional value.
The composition of a full-fledged mash for boars (PRK) PK-57-3-89:
- barley - 27%;
- oats - 26%;
- sunflower meal - 9%;
- meat-bone meal - 16%;
- alfalfa flour - 18%;
- chalk feed - 2%;
- table salt - 1%;
- PC-57-3-89 (Premix) - 1%.
The quality indicators of this type will be as follows:
- exchange energy - 11.83 MJ / kg;
- feed units in one kilogram - 1.07;
- crude protein - 198 g;
- crude fiber - 80 g;
- lysine - 9 g;
- cystine + methionine - 5.2 g;
- calcium - 10 g;
- phosphorus - 8 g;
- crude fat - 58 g
And now, for example, consider an analogue of the above feed for boars-manufacturers (PRK PK-57-4-89). So, the composition:
- barley - 30%;
- oats - 39%;
- sunflower meal - 6%;
- fodder yeast - 6%;
- Alfalfa flour - 16%;
- chalk feed - 1%;
- table salt - 1%;
- PC-57-3-89 (Premix) - 1%.
Its quality indicators will be as follows:
- exchange energy - 11.60 MJ / kg;
- feed units in one kilogram - 1.00;
- crude protein - 170 g;
- crude fiber - 78 g;
- lysine - 8.5 g;
- cystine + methionine - 5.0 g;
- calcium - 10.6 g;
- phosphorus - 8.12 g;
- fat crude - 56 g
As you can see, the composition of the feed for the second recipe has changed, but the ingredients remained about the same. Only their ratio has changed. But, the quality indicators remained practically the same as in the first recipe. That is, even though the manufacturer retreated a little from the basic recipe, but the quality did not suffer, namely all the standards that are required by GOST were met. The consumption of such feed is indicated by the manufacturer on the packaging.
It is also necessary to mention that GOST predetermines the following characteristics of different types of feed:
- Nutritiousness, namely the table of its calculation when applying various ingredients.
- The mineral composition is determined, namely how much phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sodium should be included in it.
- What should be the size of grinding, namely, predetermined 3 types of grinding: small, medium and large.
- What diameter should be granules of granulated feed. Namely, for piglets, which are only weaned from the mother, the diameter of the granules should not exceed 8 mm, and for other pigs - no more than 10 mm.
How much should feed be given to an animal per day, month or year? For greater visibility of their consumption, a table of different types of mash beats will be given, which you need to feed 1 pig throughout its life. There will also be a comparison of giving feed from different manufacturers. For this we allocated 2 domestic producers and took their range of goods. So, a comparison is made between the following feed producers: the Russian trading company, OOO Union Soyuzpischeprom, and the American trading company, TM Provimi.Table of the range of factories of LLC "Union Soyuzpischeprom" and TM "Provimi"
To determine the daily rate of feed is quite easy. On average, for an adult individual, it ranges from 2 to 4 kg per head. For a nursing sow, this figure can go up to 6 kg. For weaned suckers, the norm ranges from a few tens of grams to a couple of hundred grams. And for piglets in one and a half months the rate is about the same and is about one and a half kilograms per head. For greater clarity, below are tables of norms of giving different types.Table daily feed consumption rate from the manufacturer LLC "Union Soyuzpischeprom"Table of daily consumption of feed from the manufacturer TM "Provimi"
It is also easy to calculate the daily rate and the rate of feed per year, if you know its nutritional value. So, below is a table of growing pigs' needs for protein and energy, and also an approximate daily rate per head is calculated.Growing pig needs table, as well as estimated feed consumption
This suggests the conclusion that the daily consumption per 1 pig depends on age, sex, weight, type of feed, etc. Therefore, with a more accurate calculation, all these factors must be taken into account.
Rate per year
Accurately calculate the feed rate for 1 year is quite difficult. If we make a rough estimate, then you can use the table of the needs of growing individuals in energy and protein. So, on the basis of her, from 21 to 40 days of life of the pig, it will need 10.45 kg of feed. In the period from 40 to 60 days - 23.6 kg, from 61 to 90 days - 53.65 kg, from 91 to 120 days - 69.6 kg, from 121 to 150 days - 82.94 kg and from 151 to 180 day - 93.67 kg. Now suppose that when we reach the age of 180 days we spent slaughtering an animal. Thus, the rate per year 1 individual is: 10.45 kg + 23.6 kg + 53.65 kg + 69.6 kg + 82.94 kg + 93.67 kg = 333.91 kg.
Cooking at home
For an optimal return from their animals, the pig farmer must introduce daily feed into their diet. But before him is always open choice, buy it in the store or do it yourself? What is more profitable for him? The answer is simple, you need to proceed from their capabilities, both financially and in terms of extracting the necessary ingredients for a full mix. If the ingredients are in abundance or you can get them cheaper, then it will be much more profitable to prepare the mixture yourself, otherwise the owner will have direct access to the store for the feed.
If you decide to prepare the mash yourself, then remember that the best are mixtures that are based on grain. Then for pigs it is necessary to grind grain and other large ingredients. As already mentioned, rough grinding, medium and fine grinding are distinguished by the degree of grinding. Next you need to remember that the mixture prepared with your own hands can be of different consistencies, namely:
- dry - its moisture content is not more than 14%;
- loose dry - the ratio of dry mix to water is 1 / 0.5;
- moist crumbly - the ratio with water is about 1/1;
- mushy thick - 1 / 1.5;
- mushy liquid - 1/2;
- soup-like thick - 1 / 2.5;
- soupy liquid - 1/3.
Depending on the age of the pig, it is preferable to feed this or that mixture. For greater efficiency from self-prepared feeds, it is better to additionally add in the diet of animals vitamin and mineral supplements, for example, premixes. It is also worth remembering that boiling or steaming the grain is not recommended, as the feed loses almost all its beneficial properties. Below is a table for making universal mash for piglets of different weight categories.Table of the optimal composition of feed for pigs of different ages
For little piglets
Preparation of the mixture for piglets is not much different from the preparation of a similar product for adults. The ingredients in both cases may be the same, simply, depending on the age of the animal, their percentage ratio in the overall composition of the product will vary. Then it is worth considering the fact that only finely ground mixtures are suitable for piglets and fattening young animals. Also, the consistency of the feed for small pigs should be thick, mushy or moist crumbly.
With this consistency, the food is most quickly absorbed by the body. It should be remembered that it is not recommended to give it cold, and you need to heat up to about 30 degrees Celsius. And now let's look at one fairly simple recipe for piglet feed. So, for its preparation, we need:
- cereals (barley, wheat, corn, oats) - 1 kg;
- fodder yeast - 100 g;
- fat feed - 40 g;
- chalk - 15 g;
- salt - 5 g
The preparation of such a mixture begins with the crushing of grain. Then all the ingredients are added to the crushed grain and mixed thoroughly. You can even interfere with your hands. Additionally, before giving to the piglets, boiled potatoes, peas or even bread can be mixed into the mixture. That's all, feed for piglets ready.
Individuals that are fed to the slaughter can be fed with coarse grain mixtures. Those that hold on broods, it is recommended to feed only medium grinding. If we talk about the consistency, then liquid porridge mash are better suited to adults. And now we give the recipe of mash, which is easy to prepare at home. So, the composition:
- barley - 400 g;
- oats - 300 g;
- alfalfa flour - 160 g;
- meat-bone meal - 120 g;
- sunflower cake - 80g;
- chalk - 20 g;
- salt - 10 g
The mixture is prepared in the same way as the feed for piglets, but here the grain is crushed not to a fine consistency, but to medium. Then the rest of the ingredients are added to it and everything is thoroughly mixed. Additionally, you can mix the premix. Its consumption per 1 kg of product is about 80-100 g. This mixture can be fed to pigs all year round, and from these mixtures it is possible to prepare granulated feed.
Video "How to make feed at home"
In this story you will learn how you can make mash yourself. Recall also that the presented method is just an example and you can easily come up with your own pig feed in your household.