A good farmer has always been considered one who could independently raise livestock and care for him. One of the most popular animals for home keeping is pigs. Pig-breeding as a business in domestic conditions is currently profitable, because it has several advantages over other animals.
In Russia and Ukraine, the breeding of pigs as commerce has been flourishing for many decades, and at home as well. Of course, first of all, because of the demand for homemade meat and lard, as well as sausages and other meat products. They are much higher in quality than those on shelves. And their taste characteristics are much better. Yes, and the ingredients can literally taste to taste, without fear of unknown additives.
However, whether the cultivation of pigs and pigs in the farm household? It is no secret that you need to work hard and regularly, then your business will flourish. If you are wondering whether to keep pigs and piglets at home, or do something else, our article will help you make a decision.
Where to begin?
If you approach the issue of creating a farm from scratch, you will need five mandatory components. Land for construction of economic structures and a pigsty, directly the premises, animals for the formation of the herd, fodder base and technical base. Financial expenses in this list are not specified, as they are mandatory, without them the five specified points will not be beneficial to combine to get the farm.
The first and one of the most important points for the creation of a pig farm is the territory for building a pigsty and creating a platform for walking. For example, a population of 10 individuals will need at least ten acres of land (grazing territory). For the same 10 pigs, a minimum of 25 square meters of space will be required (only for machines), plus a place for a tambour, a corridor and a storage room or other room for storing inventory. The best option - a barn, which is built next to the pigsty.
Total, the average area of the pigsty with machines, corridor and vestibule - 35 square meters. meters, a barn - about 8 square meters. meters, walking area - 100 square meters. meters On average, for comfortable housing and growing 10 heads of pigs on a farm, 143 square meters will be required. meter As the pig population increases, the pigsty area can be expanded. It is quite beneficial to consider the option of renting, especially in the initial stages of the formation of the economy.
Directly rearing pigs should take place in a comfortable environment, as well as keeping adult pigs. The best pigsty is brick, with a concrete floor, a tiled roof and wooden or plywood overlays on the walls. One pig has about 2 square meters. meters, in one machine can hold up to 5 boars and up to 12 sows. Sow with cubs must be kept in a separate machine.
Note that if there is such an opportunity, even at home it is better to keep each individual separately. Animals can be in contact with each other and on the walk, but the separate content will save from fights, uncontrolled mating and trampling of piglets. Group sections of the content allow the simultaneous finding of 25 heads, but in our case, with a small herd population, group machines are not needed.
Growing large livestock is definitely not immediately profitable. You need to see how many pigs you can keep without much expense and with the rational spending of time. Usually, six or seven pigs and two pigs are bought, forming a herd of up to 10 individuals. As pigs mature, they determine which business direction is closer: selling breeding high-quality pigs or breeding for meat, or maybe both. Pig breeding does not stand in a hurry, so do not rush to buy a lot of piglets.
There are two options: growing feed crops on your land or purchasing bulk feed from a supplier. The first is quite profitable if the livestock is large, and the second is suitable when you want to keep a small herd. The content of piglets should go on these types of food: roots, vegetables, hay, fruits, grains, as well as protein feed (for omnivorous species). But, for example, animal feed is not suitable for feeding low-fat piglets, as this breed is a herbivore.
Another auxiliary, but sometimes a necessary resource - technology. When growing pigs is aimed at medium and large scale, it is beneficial to have a tractor with a trailer, as well as various electric mowers for harvesting hay and fresh grass in summer. Depending on the scale of your domestic pig production, the amount of equipment may vary. By the way, the equipment does not have to buy, you can take and rent.
Any small or medium-sized business aimed at raising and selling animals requires help. Sometimes it’s easier to hire a few people to help than to spend all your energy trying to do it yourself. If you plan to keep more than 100 pigs, it is not always possible to cope with the forces of one family. Required specialists: janitor, cleaner, tractor driver, livestock specialist (in the case when selection and selection of pigs are planned).
Must take into account all the main points of meat production, piglet keeping and breeding of adult pigs. So, for a domestic pig farm of 10 heads, if you have your own premises and a free-standing area, you will need:
- 10 pigs (2 hogs and 8 pigs, for one individual from 6 to 14 thousand rubles, a total of 60 thousand rubles at least);
- feed of various types (for one individual for the entire period of fattening in 28 weeks it takes about 400 kg of feed, for ten heads 4000 kg of feed will be needed - 1 ton costs about 7000 rubles, total 28000 rubles);
- equipment of a pigsty (drinking bowls, feeders, lamps - from 25 thousand rubles and more)
- inventory (for cleaning, cleaning the pigsty, garbage collection - about 15 thousand rubles)
- equipment (tractor rental from 400 rubles per hour, and from 6800 for a work shift, multiplied by the number of work shifts).
On average, the most necessary will require from 150 to 250 thousand rubles or more. As we can see, the financial side of domestic pig breeding should be studied first. Our calculations are approximate and are intended to give an idea of average costs. However, each farm individually, as well as its capabilities. Hard work can make a good, and most importantly, a steady income on pigs, but you will have to spend more than one month in worries and rather troublesome work.
According to the standards with one carcass weighing 120 kg, the slaughter yield will be about 75%, which corresponds to 90 kg of meat. So, when it is sold at an average price of 250-300 rubles per kg, you will get about 23-27 thousand rubles.
Subtleties breeding and content
The business is quite heavy, at the start requiring maximum effort, investment and time. Each breed has its own subtleties, for example, visually bruised pigs are loved for the quality of fat and meat, as well as for their friendly disposition and small size. But their cost varies from 5 thousand rubles per head. Domestic pig breeding implies the existence of areas for walking, as well as premises for animals. If you have the resources available, then it’s up to small to buy a pig.
So, if you bought pigs for your pig farm on the market or from breeders, what's next? First of all - intensive feeding. It starts from 1.5-3 months and lasts until about 8. Just before the time when the queens can be tied with a boar. For one pig with an average weight of 10 kg it will take almost 400 kg of concentrate to fatten it to 120 kg. Pigs gain muscle tissue up to 7-8 months, so do not spare feed for them and give vitamin supplements regularly (for example, calcium, tricalcium phosphate).
It is necessary to keep pigs and piglets in insulated pig houses, in winter the temperature in them should not be below 20 degrees. On popular today, the swampy pigs will require about 2 square meters per head, for whites - a little more, up to 2.5 meters. Boars are kept in pens with a maximum of 5 heads, and better - separately. Domestic pig production will show a profit a year after the purchase of pigs, if they are provided with the proper fattening and care.
From an economic point of view, it is more profitable to fatten the pigs to the maximum so that they gain more than 100 kg of weight (depending on the breed). Then the yield of meat will be more. Over time, you can increase the population, leaving the piglets from the offspring. Remember that with the increase in livestock, the territory of the pigsty needs to be expanded.
Video "Vladimir Gerasimov Pig Farm"
The plot of the device pig house at home with owner comments. The peculiarity of the farm is the use of EM (effective microorganisms) for the disposal of animal waste with heat.