Most owners who contain chickens often face the sudden death of a bird. The reasons for this can serve as many diseases. To prevent this from happening all at once, you need to know what are the diseases of laying hens?
There are many diseases of layers. Learn more about them will be useful for a farmer who contains hundreds of birds. As well as for the owner, who at home decided to acquire at least one dozen goals. Therefore, let's begin to deal with the most common causes of disease. These include improper feeding and improper laying hens.
You also need to know the classification of diseases so that it is easier to determine them. There are several types of the most common. It:
- internal parasites;
- external parasites.
Some diseases are inherent only in young or chickens. Some are only adult birds. But the majority can manifest as the first, and the second. It is also worth remembering that the medicine is not from all diseases. Sometimes the situation may be hopeless. Therefore, it is always better to follow the diet and cleanliness of the wards.
Chickens are the most susceptible to this disease. They give in to her up to 14 days of age. The main symptoms are a decrease or lack of appetite, constant thirst and lethargy. Also, the sick chicken will try to stay away from the others and its wings will be lowered. It is possible to notice the patient also by frequent squeaking and a dirty sticky cannon near the cloaca.
Often, sick chickens are late to notice, and nothing can be done about it. But sometimes they are simply destroyed to protect the rest of the bird. Despite frequent drastic measures, treatment still exists. It consists of two drugs: biomitsin and furazolidone.
Biomitsin comes with the calculation of 1 g per thousand chickens, from the first to the tenth day of life. Starting from the eleventh and the thirtieth - the dose is increased to 1.2 g. Furazolidone is applied from day 1 to day 5 with the calculation of 2 g per 1000 units, and from day 5 to day 15 - 3 g per 1000 heads. In most European countries, these drugs are part of a variety of feed. Therefore, pullorosis-typhus began to be forgotten.
It is also a young disease. It can occur from 4 to 8 days of life of the chicken. Externally, the symptoms resemble pullorosis-typhoid. You can distinguish the color of feces. At the very beginning they are liquid and greenish, but over time the chicken continues to wear brown-colored litter with a small amount of blood. Also at the last stage paresis of the wings and legs may appear.
Various coccidiostatic drugs are used. Such drugs include Dekox, Coccidin, Statil, Sacox, Ardinon-25, Bihonolyat, and Himkoktsid-17. You can give them diluted in water or feed. Per 1 kg of feed give 0.25 g of the drug. This feed is given to chickens for about 5 or 7 days.
Both youngsters and adult chickens are ill. Signs of illness are fever, thirst, and lethargy. Since it affects the respiratory tract, wheezing will be clearly heard, especially when the bird is moving. But the signs are well expressed only in young chickens. It is difficult to determine colibacteriosis in old chickens without the help of a specialist.
Effectively treated with sarafloksalinom and enroflaksalinom. Ordinary ampicillin may also help. Interestingly, a small frequent overdose of the drug can cause permanent immunity in chickens to the disease.
Chickens are most susceptible to this disease from two to three months of life. But the greatest mortality it causes in adult chicken. The characteristic symptoms are lethargy, heat and constant thirst. Also, the bird will sit still, and mucous fluid will flow from the beak and nasal openings. There is still persistent diarrhea and ruffled feathers.
Scallop sick chicken will darken and become bluish. So will the earrings. If nothing is done, then the death rate will be 100% sick birds.
It is necessary to fight the disease in the early stages, if you wait a little, you may not have time. The most effective is tetracycline, namely, its 1-2% aqueous solution. It can also be treated with a solution of norsulfazole. Aqueous solutions are added to food, at 0.5 g per reception, and fed to a sick bird.
Juveniles are the most malleable of this disease. The first four weeks of life are the most risky. Manifested in the appearance of conjunctivitis with lacrimation, as well as difficulty breathing. As an addition, lameness may occur. In the last stage, the bird falls on its side or back and quickly dies.
Based on the use of antibiotics such as: chloramphenicol, sulfonamide and chlortetracycline. Preparations in small doses are mixed with food that is fed to patients. The course of treatment lasts about 10 days.
All ages of hens are equally affected by this disease. Often the course of the disease is lightning. Therefore, it is not always possible to identify it and prevent the death of the bird. Infected birds have drowsiness, fever, and lack of appetite. There will also be a lot of fetid mucus in the mouth.
Because of this mucus, the chicken is breathing heavily, so it will sit with its beak open. Also, when breathing, it can make croaking sounds. In the later stages, the beard and scallop are blue.
Methods of dealing with the disease yet. If the infection occurred on a production scale, it is better to destroy all the livestock. There is a vaccine to prevent the disease. If you use a vaccine, then you need to know that the chicken is able to transmit passive immunity to offspring.
There is also the possibility of recovery of a sick bird. Such a hen acquires lifelong immunity to this disease. But unfortunately the survival rate is almost zero.
Most often the young are subject to the disease. Characteristic signs are the appearance of small growths, pock marks on the skin of a bird. Often they appear on the head and near the cloaca. Over time, the growths become larger, and they can also be combined with each other. First, the growths are yellowish, and then dark brown.
After a couple of days, the pockpots become inflamed and a slight hemorrhage occurs. And in 10-14 days they harden and disappear. Such warty outgrowths and mucous membranes of the chicken oral cavity may also be affected. Then the growths will be white, and the bird will walk with its beak slightly open due to difficulty breathing.
Outdoor smallpox should be softened with glycerol or neutral fats. And if it is internal, then it is necessary to treat the growths by burning 1% solution of iodine-glycerin or 5% solution of chloramine. You also need to wash the mouth with warm water and chamomile tincture. During treatment, the hen should always have water.
Very often, this disease manifests itself with improper feeding of layers. The fact is that by using certain food masses a chicken may overflow with a goiter and form an obstruction. Symptoms are heavily enlarged and hard drooping goiter. It can easily block the breathing or the jugular vein of the bird, which will lead to the rapid death of the latter.
It is necessary to introduce through the probe into the goiter vegetable oil, about 50 ml. Then it is easily massaged. After, raise the bird by the legs and try to remove the content of the goiter through the esophagus. At the end of the procedure, pour a non-strong solution of potassium permanganate into the goiter through the probe.
Expressed in inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. Symptoms are diarrhea and general weakness of the bird. The cause of this disease can serve as an unhealthy diet or an abrupt change in the diet of the chicken.
Since diarrhea can be a symptom of a large number of diseases in chickens, it is better to immediately consult a specialist. Prevention is correct feeding.
This is all the same gastroenteritis, but only in young animals. Symptoms and causes are the same as in the adult bird. In addition, the cause of the disease may be the premature feeding of young solid feed.
Both for treatment and prophylaxis, feeding young curd, sour milk, whey and acidophilic milk to youngsters is well suited. Also, instead of water should be given a weak solution of baking soda, potassium permanganate or iron sulfate.
Another disease caused by improper diet or violation of conditions of detention. Manifested in inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cloaca. It can also be caused by laying eggs.
To clean the cloaca of pus, it is washed with a solution of potassium permanganate or revanol. Then you can grease with a mixture of vaseline (200 g), terramycin (1 g) and anesthesin (1 g). For the prevention of food, you can add green food, grass meal, roots or carrots.
Characteristic signs are swelling of the bronchi and lung tissue. Most often the disease occurs in young animals up to 20 days old. The reason is a prolonged or periodic overcooling of the bird. All the symptoms of exhaustion are manifested on the face. Mortality occurs at about 4 days.
To treat this disease is quite difficult. Sometimes it is even impossible to diagnose. For its prevention, you must always maintain an appropriate microclimate in the hen house.
It occurs only when birds are kept in a room where ammonia vapors abound. Demonstrated in inflammation of the eyes and respiratory tract. The eyes of a sick chicken will constantly water, and around them the feathers will be wet and dirty. There may also appear a frothy yellow mass that will glue the eyelids of the hen.
The first step is to remove ammonia vapors and establish good ventilation. Then you can rinse the eyes and mouth of the bird with infusion or decoction of chamomile.
Often at home, the chicken does not have enough vitamins. Symptoms may be bird weakness, loss of weight, conjunctival eyes, etc.
It is difficult to cure vitamin deficiency. The best treatment will be its prevention. Therefore, laying hens should always have a rich and varied diet.
Internal parasites or helminthiasis
Often chickens have two types of parasites. These are roundworm and heterocidosis, which inhabit the small intestine and its blind processes. The former have a spindle-shaped body and can reach 11 cm in length. Roundworm lives no more than 14 months, while actively breeding.
Heteric acidosis is roundworms. Their length can reach 15 cm. Up to 1000 individuals can be found in an infected bird. Such worms can be carriers of typhoid fever. Usually, an infected chicken will lose its appetite and diarrhea.
For the fight against worms is actively used foreign drug Fludenvet. It is produced in powder form. This powder should be mixed with feed in the proportion of 3 g per 1 kg of feed. Then this food is given to the bird for about 7 days.
These include bedbugs, mites, and puffs. They live everywhere, so those who want to get layers need to know how to deal with them. Especially the information is useful for those who decided to breed chickens at home. Because such parasites can be the main cause of reduced egg production and the poor condition of birds.
We derive bugs
These parasites live in the crevices and slots of the walls of the chicken coop. They can also be found near perches and nests. They attack chickens at night and suck blood from them. Having sucked, go on a day's respite. The parasite easily tolerates frost down to -10 degrees Celsius and can live without food for 1.5 years. You can see the parasite in detail in the photo below.
How to fight?
Struggling with bugs by processing the coop with one of 1% aqueous solutions, which include: chlorophos solution, karbofos and trichlormetaphos-3 emulsion. Before processing, remove all birds from the room. And after one and a half to two weeks, repeat the procedure.
Chicken mite is also active only at night. He, like bedbugs, sucks blood from a bird. But instead of blood, the parasite injects its poisonous saliva. Because of it, the immunity of the hens decreases, they lose weight and cease to nest.
How to fight?
The method is quite simple and affordable. It is necessary to lubricate with sunflower oil non-feathered parts of the body of the hen. It will not harm the chickens, but the tick will die in a few days. It is also recommended to whiten the hen house and spray diesel on the floor.
These are parasites that feed on feathers, down, and torn-off bird skin. They live only on a bird, and outside of its body they die quickly. Their vital activity causes great discomfort in the hens, which manifests itself in constant itching. It is easy to detect the parasite when viewing a chicken.
How to fight?
The way to fight is very simple. You need to arrange the hens swimming in the ashes. And even better if you build a ash bath in the hen house itself. Constant access to it will prevent the appearance of the parasite.