The maintenance of a cow today is carried out in four basic ways, each of which requires adherence to certain rules. At the same time, meat and dairy animals have their own peculiarities in care and feeding. Since most often in private household farms they keep mainly cows of dairy or combined species, we’ll talk about their content in more detail.
Content of adult cows
Today in animal husbandry there are four ways to keep cows:
- loose housing;
In this case, the first two methods and the latter are successfully used in modern cattle farms. At home, the adjacent method of keeping animals is most often used, for example, pasture grazing in summer, and in the dining room in winter. This method for many owners reduces the cost of feeding the cows and also has a good effect on the condition of the animals.
Loose housing content
This type of dairy cow content has a number of pros and cons. Today, this method is used both in large farms and in private household farms. In this case, of all, it is believed that the loose-haired method is the simplest and cheapest. Its essence lies in the fact that a group of cows freely placed in a room or in a walking yard.
Indoors, a deep layer of bedding (sawdust or straw) is used, which changes only twice a year. With a special biochemical reaction, this litter sublimates the heat, so the animals feel great on it even in the cold winter.
With this method of content feed and water are fed into the general feeders and drinkers. Every animal has easy access to food all the time. In the yard, hay is sometimes distributed right in bales. However, this dramatically increases feed consumption, which is a minus. It is also difficult to control how much one cow and another will eat.
The loose housing of cows can often be found on large farms, since it allows placing one and a half times more heads on one territory than, for example, the tethered way. We offer to watch the video.
Loose housing boxed
For more control over the feeding of animals in modern farms, another loose-housing method is used - boxed. At the same time, animals are still free to move around, but they rest and eat in separate boxes.
Perhaps the most popular method of keeping dairy cows. It is used both on farms and in the household, especially if several artiodactyls live in a barn. This allows you to avoid animal clashes and to comply with the individual diet of cows in accordance with their needs.
As for the advantages of this method, it is to simplify cleaning, especially in large farms. But among the shortcomings are:
- impedes the movement of the animal, a static way of life;
- requires more labor in the distribution of feed;
- badly affects the condition of pregnant cows.
It is important to remember that the leash must be equipped in such a way that the animal can easily stand, eat, drink water, lie down. With this content, it is imperative to have a walking yard for walks and a separate room for pregnant cows.
Stall maintenance implies a way in which pasture is not used for grazing. This method is acceptable for owners of cows that do not have a number of suitable areas for grazing or meadows. With this method, green food and grass is collected separately and distributed to animals in the feeders. If possible, with this content, the cows are allowed to walk for 2-3 hours to a special area or to the pen. As a rule, in the private sector, the stall method is observed only in winter.
Today, this is a rather rare way of raising dairy cows, since it requires large areas for walking and grazing animals. In our country, this method is used in those areas where there are free steppes and fields. All most of the time animals are grassy with the addition of some concentrated nutrients. As a rule, this method contains beef breeds of cows. In the cold season and in bad weather animals are driven into a pen with canopies.
How to keep calves?
The content of young cows and the way they are raised practically do not differ. The only thing, due to their active growth and development, as shown by years of practice, has better recommended itself in all respects the loose method. If there are several kids, they are grouped together. It best meets their biological needs. In large farms, in the first two months, calves are kept in individual boxes, gradually transferring to group loose housing.
Caring for a dairy cow includes two main points: feeding and general care. As for the latter, the animal, first of all, should be comfortable, its movements should not be hampered by either a leash or a stall. If the burenka is contained on a leash, the collar with a rope or chain should be connected with a carbine. This will prevent the possibility of entanglement.
It is necessary to carefully monitor the cleanliness of the room. The fact is that cows are real neat. Most of them will not fall on the dirty litter. The animal will stand, and therefore, the yield will fall. However, do not forget about the purity of the cow's wool. It should be cleaned daily with a brush and wash it with warm water as it gets dirty. It is necessary to clean the animal an hour before or after milking.
Winter litter or sawdust is best suited for bedding. They absorb moisture well, keep the smell and maintain the quality of manure.
The cow should go for a walk, so a walking paddock (about 15 square meters) should be made near the barn. The animal is let out for a walk in good dry weather for 2-3 hours, in winter - for 1.5 hours. In summer, as a rule, the cow spends more time grazing. Read more about caring for cows on our website, as well as watch the video.