Dairy cows, referring to a separate direction of productivity, differ both externally from the rest of their relatives, and the internal structure. For example, they have a more elongated body and rather high limbs. Also, these cows have a well-developed heart, digestive system and, of course, the mammary glands - the udder. But the muscles, on the contrary, are weakly developed and the body is more bony. What are the most common and best dairy breeds of cows, let's talk now.
This breed is known in the world since the XVIII century and takes its origin in Scotland. Today, it is mostly bred in the USA, Canada, Russia and some European countries. This cash cow has a medium-sized body and an obvious milky exterior. It has an elongated body, a small, dry head, a well-developed udder, short bony limbs, and a slender neck. Chest deep, back straight. The color of these cows is red and white.
It’s not for nothing that we started talking about dairy cows from this particular breed, because the Ayshir cows have very high milk yield. The average annual rate ranges from 6,000 to 7,000 kilograms. Fat is good - on average 4.0-4.3%. Also, these cows are quick-ridden, so the first calving is usually at the age of 24 months. In our country, this breed is valued for its good adaptability to the harsh climate, endurance and productivity.
Breed totals more than 1 thousand years and today it is the most ancient cow among all a dairy orientation. It was created without the participation of other breeds and until today is a special purity of blood. No wonder why it is so popular. Now it is bred in more than 30 countries of the world on all continents except Antarctica. Moreover, it is this milk cow that is considered the progenitor for many modern breeds.
Outwardly, these cows are very reminiscent of Kholmogory, but the spots of the latter are more chaotically scattered throughout the body. The body of these cows is compact, with a developed chest and well-visible muscles. Height at withers is about 133 centimeters. The average annual milk yield reaches 6000 pounds.
At home in Holland, these cows there are several species. For example, these are black-and-white animals, red-and-white and Groningen. However, black-and-white cows are the most popular among us. They are successfully used for breeding and improving other domestic dairy breeds.
These cows first appeared in the USA in 1850. Wanting to bring a new black-and-white breed of dairy animals in the United States and Canada, large-scale breeding work was started. In 1861, the breed received official recognition, and in 1983 received a modern name. These cows are still leading in milk production in America today; therefore, they make up 90% of the total livestock in the country. And it is not surprising, because the annual yield of these beauties is 7000-8000 kilograms.
Holstein buren are rather large, about 144 centimeters high in withers. They have a strong body constitution, deep chest, broad back, long loin and bath-like udder. Body color is predominantly black with white spots in the lower part of the body. It is important to note that in our area these cows are also very popular. In particular, they are bred at the Yermolino Breeding Plant named after Lenin.
Interesting! The best cows of domestic lines have milk yield of 10,000-12,000 kilograms.
One of the oldest rocks in the world. Bred in England in the XVIII century, for a long time it was unknown to the world, since it was forbidden to be exported abroad. Now these cows are popular and divorced throughout the world. They adapt well to different climates, so they are successfully maintained in Russia. However, animals are quite aggressive and whimsical, therefore they are used mainly on farms.
Although it cannot be called the best in milk productivity, it has a large amount of protein and fat. The annual yield of the Jersey breed is average, not more than 3,500 kilograms. But the milk is thick, fat and has a slightly yellowish tint. The average fat content is about 6-7%. Due to this, cream from such milk is collected immediately, they are of great value.
Jersey burenok very pronounced constitution of the body of the dairy direction. They have a very elongated body, flat chest, light bones, dry head. The neck is thin, but deep chest with folds, as seen in the photo. The color ranges from light fawn to dark brown. There are also gray, red and black representatives of the breed with minor white markings on the body.
It is interesting to note that although the average milk yield of these cows for the year is not that big, we manage to get more than 5,000 kilograms of milk per lactation with 7% fat. But the American Burenka named Sunny set a breed record - 111,400 kilograms of milk in her entire life. Today, Jersey cow breeds only breeding plant of the Moscow region. Their specialty is getting high-quality fat cream.
This is one of the most popular domestic cows for both farmer and household. These dairy cows are still leading in the number of livestock in our country. The breed was bred in 1959 in the USSR. It is important to know that today there are several intrabreed groups that differ both in appearance and in milk yield. However, all have a pronounced milky exterior.
Black-and-white cows have a dark black color with white spots of different sizes, for which they received their name. The body is elongated, the head is dry, also slightly elongated, the neck is small folded. The back is long, straight, strong legs. As for milk production, it depends on the region and type of feeding. Cows from breeding factories in the central part of Russia have an average annual yield of about 8,000 kg. But, for example, in the Urals, animals give no more than 5,500 kg, but with higher fat content.
Choosing the most milky
Of course, this question worries every breeder who wants to get a real dairy farm at home. In order for a cash cow to become a real breadwinner, you must first choose the right one and then take care of it properly. As we have said, dairy cows differ in appearance from the meat or combined direction. Therefore, it is important to consider the following characteristics:
- Extended body with straight back;
- Dry light little head;
- Thin neck with many folds;
- Oblique edges with the distance between the latter - 6 cm;
- Thin limbs;
- Characteristic bowl-shaped or bath-shaped volumetric udder, as in the photo;
- Well visible veins on the udder.
When choosing a dairy cow, it is important to consider its age. Since the peak of productivity comes in the first six years of the animal's life. But one appearance and body structure is not enough. To produce tasty milk in large volumes, the animal must have good care. First of all, the feeding of dairy cows plays a key role. But read about it in more detail in our previous publication "Eating the right diet - the key to the health of your cow!".