The disease infectious stomatitis in rabbits is accompanied by inflammation of the oral mucosa and strong salivation. For this reason, the disease is also called "wet muzzle" or "wets." Rabbits are most susceptible to the age of 3 months. If the infection is not eliminated, it can infect all livestock and lead to death. To cure the pathology, requires multi-stage complex therapy.
Causes of illness
The causative agent of stomatitis in rabbits is considered a filter virus. Disease organisms reproduce not only in the saliva of the animal, but also in the urine and blood. The most susceptible to the virus are individuals with weakened immunity, namely - milk rabbits and young, only excommunicated from the mother.
The main reason for the penetration of the infection into the rabbit's body is poor conditions of detention. If the cells are not cleared of feces in time, and the feeders and drinkers are not disinfected, the risk of infecting young animals with the virus increases.
Especially carefully the health of rabbits should be monitored in spring and autumn. During this period, the maximum number of okrolov. A changeable weather and high humidity lead to a decrease in immunity.
The infection always enters the body of representatives of the hare family through the oral cavity, and then it begins to develop in the body. The source of infection in the herd is a sick animal. Therefore, a rabbit with signs of stomatitis should be immediately isolated from the rest of the population.
Characteristic symptoms of the disease
Mokrets has bright symptoms, so a careful breeder can diagnose the disease in a timely manner. Signs of stomatitis in rabbits are:
- wet hair around the mouth (as the disease progresses, hairs stick together and become wet not only on the face, but also on the neck and abdomen);
- tongue swollen;
- mouth mucosa inflamed, with white films and ulcers;
- the rabbit looks sluggish, sick;
- loss of appetite;
The first symptoms appear four days after the virus enters the body. Significantly increased salivation, white bloom appears on the lips. Then it spreads throughout the cavity, ulcers appear with pronounced red edges.
For 3-4 days the patina becomes more dense, its color changes from white to brown or yellowish. When peeling these dense crusts remain wounds. A large canker forms in the swollen tongue.
The rabbit becomes less active, keeps away from other individuals. Constantly chewing, the process is accompanied by the release of foamy saliva.
Because of ulcers in the mouth, it hurts the animal to eat, so it consumes many times less food. This leads to dramatic weight loss and digestive disorders.
Types of disease
There are two forms of rabbit stomatitis - light and heavy. The first does not pose a threat to the life of the animal and completely passes away on the 10th day after the onset of symptoms. To facilitate the state of the little rabbit, the oral cavity must be treated with special solutions.
Severe biting midge results in the death of an animal as early as 5-7 days after the onset of signs of infection. Proper treatment will help save the rabbit. The characteristic symptoms of severe stomatitis are wet coat not only on the face, but also on the abdomen, uncontrolled diarrhea.
The animal regularly scratches its face with its paws, thereby trying to alleviate its suffering. Full recovery occurs within 15 days, but only if effective therapy is provided. Glued fur often falls completely. Ulcers heal for a long time; deep scars remain in their place.
Rabbit stomatitis is not only infectious, but also traumatic. The animal may injure the mucous membrane of the mouth on coarse food or in a fight. If the wound is not treated in time, pathogenic bacteria develop in it. This disease also requires timely treatment. The only difference is that it is completely safe for the rest of the herd.
All breeds of rabbits, including the ornamental ones, are susceptible to infectious stomatitis. The virus to a pet that is not in contact with other animals can get through the feed or the hands of the owners.
Wet Face Disease Stages
There are three stages of the disease caused by the filter virus:
- not sharp
The initial stage is the period when the first signs of stomatitis become noticeable. Saliva begins to stand out more actively, which leads to gluing of the fur on the face. On the lips and tongue there is a distinctly visible coating. The animal becomes sluggish, but the appetite remains. Ulcers begin to appear on the mucous membrane of the mouth.
It is much better if the treatment of stomatitis was started at this stage. Chances of recovery are much higher then.
The initial stage quickly becomes acute. Saliva secretion becomes even more active, which leads to gluing of the hair almost throughout the body. The rabbit is hammered into a corner. It seems that he continuously chews. In this way, he tries to reduce discomfort. To eat the pet is almost impossible, because of the large number of wounds in the mouth, this leads to rapid weight loss and diarrhea.
The acute form of infectious stomatitis is very dangerous for rabbits. If you do not take action, then after 4-5 days the rabbit may die.
The non-acute form is more characteristic of traumatic stomatitis. In this case, the only symptom is salivation, but not too active. Only the hair around the mouth becomes wet.
Even with no treatment, the disease disappears already on the second day.
Correct diagnostic methods
Recognize infectious stomatitis in a rabbit will help its characteristic symptoms. Some difficulty lies in the fact that the signs of "bumbler" coincide with the symptoms of other diseases, in particular, coccidiosis, rhinitis, intestinal infections. Here the sequence of manifestations of the disease plays an important role.
The first symptoms of stomatitis are salivation and plaque in a language that quickly spreads throughout the mucosa. The first ulcers also appear on the tongue. Activity decreases, it is often possible to notice how the rabbit is scratching its muzzle with its front paws and constantly chewing. The amount of water and food practically does not change.
The most convenient way is to watch the animals set aside in a separate aviary. In addition, it is the key to the safety of other individuals.
All rabbits that have recovered from stomatitis become its carriers.
If the babies are still sitting with the rabbit, but one or more signs of the disease appear, jigging is performed as far as possible.
Treat infectious stomatitis in a rabbit as soon as you notice its first manifestations. The complex technique described below will help to overcome the infection.
Treatment of stomatitis in rabbits is based on the disinfection of the oral cavity. For these purposes, you can use a 15% solution of potassium permanganate. Since it is impossible to force a pet to rinse your mouth, it is recommended to use a small syringe. Processing should be carried out 2 times a day.
Next, the mucous membrane can be smeared with penicillin ointment, which is easy to prepare yourself. For the manufacture of medicines mix 200,000 units. antibiotic and 170 g of vaseline. Apply 2 times a day at regular intervals.
Penicillin ointment can be replaced with streptocide - a single dose of one rabbit is 0.2 g. For convenience, you can buy in the pharmacy a streptocide emulsion, which is much easier to apply to the affected areas of the oral cavity.
Penicillin can be replaced by new-generation drugs - Biomitsin or Baytril. Medicines are used to prepare a solution that disinfects the oral cavity. In severe stages of stomatitis, it is recommended that an animal be dug in 0.02 ml of one of the proposed antibiotics into the animal’s mouth.
For the same purpose is used and "Sulfadimezin".
It is useful to lubricate the ulcer drug "Lugol". In order to avoid burns of the mucous membrane, it can be diluted with glycerols in a 2: 1 ratio.
The hair around the face is cleaned with a solution of copper sulfate. The same liquid can be syringed and mouth of the sick rabbit.
Prescriptions for traditional medicine and prevention
Traditional medicine also has ways to deal with the "wet muzzle". High efficiency possess homemade ointment based on propolis. This substance is a strong natural antiseptic and contributes to the rapid healing of wounds.
For douching, you can use decoctions of herbs - chamomile, calendula, sage or oak bark. Usually 2 tbsp. spoons brew a liter of boiling water. Used to treat rabbit mouth.
A lot of useful information in the article "How to treat moths in rabbits."
To avoid the spread of infection, all sick rabbits are immediately isolated from the rest of the herd. Animals that are in direct contact with the diseased are vaccinated. As a preventive therapy, drinking water is replaced by a weak solution of potassium permanganate — 0.5 mg per 1 liter of liquid.
Disinfection of cells and enclosures should be carried out at intervals once a week. General recommendations for the prevention of stomatitis are aimed at improving the immunity of animals.
The consequences are directly dependent on the stage of stomatitis. In mild form, recovery occurs without the use of drugs. In order to prevent the aggravation of the disease, it is recommended to douche the oral cavity with an antiseptic solution. The consequences are extremely rare.
The real danger for the life of the rabbit is severe stage of stomatitis. Even with complex therapy, which includes treatment of the oral cavity and injections of the antibiotic, death is no exception.
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