A high percentage of mortality in the environment of eared pets gives pasteurellosis rabbits. This pathology is caused by the stick Pasteurella. When ingested, the bacterium multiplies rapidly, penetrating the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and intestines are initially affected. As a result, septicemia, hemorrhagic diathesis, edema occurs. Timely diagnosis and treatment are essential because there is a high risk of complete loss of livestock.
Features of the disease
Pasteurellosis is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases. Its causative agent is a sedentary, gram-negative microscopic bacterium called Pasteurella multocida.
This type of microorganism retains its viability within a certain nutrient medium for a long time. For example, bacteria in drinking water can last up to three weeks. Under the influence of direct sunlight the wand dies.
For the first time, the symptoms of the disease and the ways of infection were described by the French scientist Louis Pasteur. Based on these data, a vaccine and a pathology treatment regimen were developed. This infection has spread throughout the world. Most often farm animals are ill.
In most cases, pasteurellosis affects individual rabbits. But under certain circumstances and in the absence of timely therapeutic measures, the disease can spread quickly. Poor conditions of maintenance, inadequate feeding, weakening of the body of rabbits increase the risk of an epidemic.
If such problems accumulate in one place, then the death of eared pets increases to 70%. The most susceptible to infection are juveniles. The virus of this disease is a great danger, therefore, the corpses of animals who died from infection should be burned along with feed, manure and equipment.
External signs and symptoms of the disease
The first bacterial infection affects the mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive systems. Along with this, rabbit eyes and ears suffer greatly. The animals themselves lose their orientation in space. In some cases, they can not keep balance and stand firmly on their paws.
With complications, the disease can lead to pneumonia, abscesses under the skin and in the internal organs. From the very beginning of infection with the body of rabbits, a large number of leukocytes are produced.
The first signs of the disease appear about eight hours after infection. They have a weak expression, therefore, to identify them requires increased attention.
Pasteurellosis in rabbits is manifested by the following symptoms:
- indigestion, abdominal distention;
- thick, saturated discharge from the nose;
- apathy, general weakness;
- loud wheezing sounds that accompany breathing;
- lack of appetite and complete rejection of food and water.
If these symptoms are characterized by a complex manifestation, then the diagnosis is greatly simplified. Separate signs require increased attention of the rabbit breeders, a more precise diagnosis. For an example, read the article "Why rabbits sneeze."
Ways of infection
Pasteurellosis is a contagious disease that can spread among rabbits in various ways.
This bacterial infection is primarily transmitted by airborne droplets, and therefore affects the respiratory system. In addition, the disease wand can be ingested inside the rabbit through contact with other pets, feed and drinking water.
The infection can spread through the wheels of vehicles, inventory, dirty hands of breeders. The disease is carried by wild birds. The recovered rabbit can become a source of infection, since the pathogen retains its activity inside its body for a long time.
Strong immunity effectively fights against pasteurellosis of rabbits. This phenomenon confirms the fact that rabbits under the protection of maternal immunity never get sick.
After weaning from the rabbit, babies become vulnerable to infection with this pathology. In addition, the deterioration of conditions of maintenance, feeding, stress, general weakening of the body contributes to the activation of a bacterial infection.
Varieties of the disease
Pasteurellosis in rabbits occurs in acute and chronic forms. In the first case, the disease occurs suddenly and manifests itself through a sharp rise in temperature, the animals' refusal to eat, sneezing, runny nose, weakness. Often in rabbits there is a violation of breathing, and after a while digestive upset, which is expressed in strong diarrhea.
Animals weaken very quickly, and after 2-3 days they die. Mortality from this type of bacterial infection reaches 75%. Surviving rabbits are carriers of the disease.
The reduction in the quality of animal welfare conditions directly affects their health, whose condition is deteriorating sharply amid aggravation of pathology.
In the chronic form of the disease, the respiratory and digestive systems of rabbits are affected. Animals have difficulty breathing due to pulmonary edema, which often develops into fibrous pneumonia. In the early stages of infection, symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis are noted. Further, diarrhea appears, and purulent abscesses appear in the subcutaneous tissue.
Unfavorable housing conditions contribute to the rapid spread of the disease and the death of the entire population. About a week later, the animals die from intoxication and exhaustion.
Diagnosis of bacterial infection
To identify the disease, requires a comprehensive diagnosis. The diagnosis is made using clinical trials, biological samples, studying material taken after the death of animals.
Corpses of dead rabbits and separate parts of their internal organs are used as diagnostic material. The most informative for the diagnosis of this bacterial infection are tissue sections, tubular bones.
Necrotic foci of liver tissue, purulent inflammatory processes of the lungs against the background of an enlarged spleen, rabbit lymph nodes are clear signs of pasteurellosis. Thus, the laboratory study of biological material is the main diagnostic method.
Effective treatment of the disease
A favorable therapeutic result in the fight against any diseases is achieved with timely and adequate measures. For early diagnosis, the first carcass of the deceased animal is recommended to be sent to the laboratory.
The most effective and high-quality treatment of rabbits is possible in the initial stages of the development of pasteurellosis. During this period, intramuscular injections of sulfonamides, antibiotics are recommended. The most common medicinal antibacterial agents are "Neomycin", "Tetracycline", "Biomitsin", "Sulfadimezin", "Norsulfazol", "Levomycetin".
Recently infected rabbits need to be treated according to certain regimens. For 3-4 days they are given sulfonamides in tablets at the rate of 0.2-0.3 g per adult and 0.1-0.2 g per baby. "Biomitsin", "Tetracycline" is administered intramuscularly twice a day for 3-4 days. At the same time, adequate veterinarian should assign adequate therapeutic measures, taking into account all the data.
Good therapeutic results are achieved by combining sulfa drugs and antibiotics. The first three days of intramuscular injection of sulfonamides, then over the next three days, antibiotics are injected, and the therapy should end with what it began. Thus, in nine days you can achieve complete recovery.
A universal treatment for different forms of pasteurellosis is the antibiotic Oxytetracycline. At a dose of 0.1 ml of a 2% solution per 1 kg of animal live weight, the drug is administered intramuscularly once. In the early stages of the disease, such treatment gives excellent results.
Pasteurellosis suffers from the entire population of rabbits, since the disease can quickly spread in various ways. Infected individuals must be immediately isolated from other animals in separate cages. The corpses of dead rabbits must be immediately burned along with their manure, feed. Eating their meat is strictly not recommended.
To effectively disinfect the cells with rabbits, pens, other places of keeping animals, it is recommended to use 3% lysol and carbolic acid, 2% caustic soda, 1% formalin solution. These components are poured into a separate container, thoroughly mixed and treated all surfaces by spraying.
The boiling water treatment of feeders, implements, disinfection of cells, animal housing are important measures to prevent outbreaks of the disease. In addition, thorough hand washing before interacting with rabbits, limiting contact with other pets, rodents, birds, strangers are essential preventive measures against the spread of infection.
Against the background of sanitary and hygienic measures, it is important to regularly vaccinate rabbits from the age of one month.
Rabbit Livestock Vaccination
An obligatory part of preventive measures is a special vaccine, which is administered to one-month-old rabbits. Such activities are allowed only for healthy animals. At the same time, adults are vaccinated twice a year. To date, Formolvaccine, Pasorin-Ol, Pestorin Mormix preparations have become most popular.
Injections to rabbits do intramuscularly in the thigh for 3-4 days. The number of vaccinations in the acute form of the disease ranges from 6 to 8. At the same time, they should be given twice a day with an interval of at least 8 hours. Morning and evening are best for this.
The most popular proven drug is Formolvaccine. Its disadvantage is that it is more suitable for young animals no more than 90 days old. High efficacy against the dangerous disease is provided by the Rabbiwak-p vaccine. This substance, when ingested by animals, increases the resistance to this type of infection, due to the microbial culture of pasteurellosis. Injections are carried out with an interval of 2-3 weeks.
The use of serum to strengthen the immune system
Sustained immunity in rabbits to a dangerous bacterial infection can be developed using hyperimmune serum. As a result of the action of special antibodies, pathogenic antigens are neutralized and bound.
This drug is well combined with probiotics, antimicrobial drugs, so it can be effectively used for treatment and prevention. The best results are observed when it is used in the early stages of the disease. 100 ml of this medicine costs about 400-450 rubles.
In addition, experienced breeders recommend using "Serum on cattle blood". This tool has a beneficial effect on the body of rabbits as a whole, cleansing their blood, strengthening the immune system.
For therapy for rabbits aged up to 40 days, serum is used at a concentration of 4 ml per 1 kg of body weight. It is administered intramuscularly every week. Immunity against this bacterial infection occurs within 10 days after drug administration. Its duration is approximately one year.
The main principles of the content of rabbits
Compliance with the temperature regime, the rules of hygiene, a balanced good nutrition, the fight against rodents is the key to the health of rabbits. New animals need to be added to the herd only through quarantine.
Cells are better positioned so that at certain times they are illuminated by sunlight. The sun's rays kill the pathogenic bacteria that cause pasteurellosis. Limiting contact with pets, eared pets should be vaccinated twice a year.
For the treatment of various diseases, it is recommended to use the complex preparations "Biovit-80", "Enroxil", "Tromeksin", "Nitoks 200", "Baytril", "Enrofloxacil". In any case, regular veterinary consultations will help to avoid problems with animal health, protect your farm.
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