The opinion that cutting and boning pork is one and the same is wrong. The first is to divide the pork carcass into pieces. The second is the process of separating meat from bones, which can be mechanized and manual. Accordingly, at home and in industrial plants, the procedure is different. Technique and types of methods also differ depending on the purpose. Properly performed, they guarantee maximum meat output after slaughter and its high quality.
Types and applications
There are several types of deboning. Basically they are used in production. With a vertical one, the half-carcass is suspended, and a bonder works with it while it is slowly moving on the conveyor.
With differentiated boning, each specialist handles his own piece of half-carcass, cut into pieces.
If a person divides the half-carcass lying on the table into three cuts, and then cuts off the meat, it is an extinguished boning.
There is also a differentiated vertical boning. Nowadays, it is most often used in meat processing plants. Its essence is that several obvalschikov cut different parts of the carcass in turn when they move along the conveyor.
Boning on pieces having a complex anatomical structure is called a combination. With her, up to 50% of the muscle pulp can remain on the bones.
At home, used as a rule, extinguishing boning, although experts are trying to use the vertical. With her, the process goes faster, simpler, and the sanitary conditions are much better than if the pieces of half-carcasses lie on the table.
Pork boning is made with special knives. They have different widths and lengths of the blades. Each is designed for its own type of work. Circular saws are often used in factories.
Work with the scapular part of the carcass
Now let's talk about the boning technique used by professionals, but it is also suitable for the home. Getting started with the blade part.
Shoulder (first left) put his forearm on himself, the inside down. Cut off the flesh from the elbow to the shoulder joint, moving the blade towards you. Then gently separate the meat on the left side of the piece. Holding a bone, we process a piece of half-carcass on the right. The knife is moving from itself. Remove the meat from the radius on the right and from the ulna on the left. Here the knife is directed at itself, starting cutting from the place where the bones join.
Now you need to separate the shoulder bone from the rest. To do this, we sever the elbow. On both bones, the muscles are removed completely. The balance of the pulp on the bone during boning should be minimal. Suppose it is only in areas located between the bones.
Turn over the piece. The wide side looks at the obvalschika. Now remove the meat, pruning it and at the same time stripping. The cartilage in the scapula undermines in the process. Then, cutting the tendons in the shoulder, process the bone head. Holding the cut part of the hip, and holding the shoulder bone with the left hand, this bone is sharply separated from the muscles. We clean the inside and outside.
The right shoulder blade roll in a similar pattern.
Muscle Free Medium Cut
The middle part of the half carcass includes part of the neck, chest and loin.
The piece is back down. The part where the neck was located, looks to the left, deployed from the obvalschika. The body of the vertebrae is separated from the pulp. Then from the inside, where the sirloin, cut off the small muscle of the loin. It is easy to recognize it - it is noticeable next to the muscles located above. The knife in the deboning process moves from left to right.
Now the ribs - clean the inside of them from the remaining fat after cutting and other unnecessary elements. First we process six vertebrae of the back, cutting off meat from them. Outside the sterno-costal zone, we slightly cut the flesh, remove the muscles, carry the knife from the seventh rib to the end, and then back.
Then the cut part of the side turns upside down the other side. The knife moves to the first of the ribs from the last vertebra in the lower back, separating the meat from the outside of the ribs, vertebral processes. Now the cervical region - it is also released, cutting off muscle tissue.
The flesh between the ribs and the fabric of the spine can not be separated. So get the product for the preparation of pork ribs in various versions and semi-finished products. But if necessary, the bones are completely cleaned of meat.
Read about independent work with pork in the article "Rules for cutting pork carcass at home."
Proper trimming ham
Further, deboning pork goes to the back of the side. These include the pelvic region, thigh, lower leg.
The pelvic bone is separated from the right ham by cutting the muscles and tendons. Then the piece needs to be expanded so that the tibia looks at the obvalschika. Clear the tibia bone. Now, moving the knife gently from top to bottom, we divide it and the femur.
Cut off the muscles of the femur to the left and to the right. After that, the remaining half-carcass piece is placed on the table at an angle of 90 degrees and the bones are completely cleaned. The second ham roll in the same way. The harder the obvalschik works, the more meat produced.
Also, pork deboning can also take place without separating all the bones of a given part of the half-carcass.
In small plants and at home, the half-carcass is sometimes divided into two parts, and not three. Then, from the front where the ribs enter, cut out the muscles of the waist and neck, then remove the ribs together. At the end process the blade.
The back part is rolled from the waist, the pelvic bone is separated, and then the meat is removed from the tibia and the femur. This meat with bacon can be used for frying, stewing, boiling and any other cooking.
On culinary cutting, read the article "How to butcher a pig."
What is meat trimming and why is it needed?
On production, cutting and boning of pork carcass ends with trimming.
A zhivovka is the distribution of meat obtained at the end of deboning into varieties; varietal separation may be different depending on the method of cutting.
Meat can be trimmed into one, two or three varieties:
- single-grade pork;
- semi-finished products, as well as sausage pork;
- single-sorted pork plus convenience foods;
- fatty meat, bold, lean;
- low-fat and sausage pork.
For certain types of semi-finished products are divided into 4 groups by numbers. Separately isolated cartilage, small bones, tendons, tendons, fat.
After deboning and trimming, all meat is weighed. If there is too much connective tissue, and little muscle, it can be sent to re-trimming. The second option - the output reduces the variety of meat.
This completes the pork deboning and meat processing in industrial production.
Accounting of the received raw materials
At home, trimming, of course, do not hold. It is needed in order to determine in production how to direct the meat: to cook sausages, ready-to-cook foods, to smoke and so on.
All the results of cutting, boning, trimming bring in a special journal. It records the amount of received food and non-food products, losses, varieties of raw materials. For each type of meat they have their own magazine of deboning and trimming.
If meat supplied to the trimmer on one day is not fully processed, it is taken into account in conjunction with the next batch.
Journal entries are periodically checked by the chief engineer of the enterprise and the head of the planning and economic department. At the end of the month, he is handed over for conclusion, first to the chief engineer, and then to the production manager.
On the basis of data in the journal of deboning and trimming, conclusions are drawn about the movement of meat in production, the productivity of the plant.
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