Coccidiosis, or rabies eumeriosis, is one of the most common diseases in these animals. The disease is contagious, and if several individuals become sick, it can quickly spread and infect all the livestock. Pathology is very dangerous. Without timely treatment, these representatives of the hare family almost always die. To avoid this, it is important to learn how to recognize the symptoms of the disease and study which drugs can help. That is what our article is about.
Coccidiosis cause unicellular microorganisms - coccidia. They are parasitic in the digestive tract or in the liver. In total there are 10 types of these protozoa, of which only one affects the liver.
However, rabbits often suffer from two types of diseases at once - intestinal and hepatic diseases. Coccidia breed in epithelial cells, where asexual parasites are transformed into female and male cells. Merging, form oocysts, through which they multiply.
Most often, the disease affects young animals aged 3-4 months. Adult animals rarely develop symptoms, but they are carriers of parasites. Rabbits are ill all year round, although flashes are more common in warm weather.
Rabbit coccidiosis is common wherever these animals are. This is explained by the fact that the pathogen can live for a long time in the external environment and almost does not respond to disinfectants. Dies during boiling in 10 seconds. In contaminated feed, manure lives up to three months.
It is said that coccidia live in the body of rabbits all the time, like many bacteria in humans. The disease occurs only if the parasite falls into a favorable environment and begins to actively proliferate.
How animals get infected
The unicellular enter the environment with the feces in the form of oocysts, coated with a protective sheath. Then they spread to the surrounding objects, with which they "travel".
The parasite goes to the rabbit during feeding by the mother's milk. They get coccidia from the rabbit, on the nipples of which there are oocysts. Further infection is also alimentary: through food and water that have been contaminated. Sometimes rabbits eat their own feces and start to hurt. This happens when there are few vitamins and trace elements in their diet.
Farmers themselves, at times, create a salutary soil for coccidiosis. For example, they keep rabbits in large groups in cramped cages, do not clean them in time, and allow dampness.
An unbalanced diet also stimulates coccidiosis in rabbits. Lack of vitamins, the addition of fatty or powdered milk to food, alfalfa bran, and wheat bran are all risk factors. Excessive protein is also dangerous. During its decomposition, substances that stimulate the growth of coccidia are formed. Sharp transition to unfamiliar animal feeds may also lead to the development of infection.
This type of disease is more dangerous than liver disease. It is acute and often ends with the death of a pet. The incubation period is from 2 to 3 days.
The first signs of the disease occur sharply. The animal begins to have diarrhea, alternating with constipation, bloating is noted, and mucus or blood is noticeable in the feces. Body temperature rises, appetite disappears, lethargy appears.
As the malady develops, the rabbit loses weight, stops growing, and the coat becomes dull and disheveled. A sick animal tries to retire, sits away from relatives. The abdomen becomes flabby, markedly enlarged.
Shortly before his death, a rabbit begins to have convulsions of its hind legs, neck, it throws back its head. If you notice these symptoms, your pet will not help. After 10-15 days from the onset of the disease, there is agony and death.
The animal dies from exhaustion and intoxication, as the disease violates the absorption of nutrients, and parasites secrete waste products into the blood.
If the treatment of coccidiosis in rabbits was not carried out or did not help, the characteristic signs of the disease are noticeable during the necropsy. The intestine is inflamed, reddened, filled with fluid. On its mucous membrane are numerous white specks or nodules. They contain parasite oocysts.
When the liver is affected
If hepatic coccidia prevail, the manifestations of the disease are initially weaker. The rabbit becomes inactive, eats worse. After some time, it can be seen that the whites of his eyes, nose, and mucous of his mouth became yellowish. Diarrhea develops, the animal loses weight. Some signs coincide with the intestinal form of the disease: wool fades, the stomach grows and sags.
With this type of coccidiosis, rabbits also develop exhaustion, but they get sick for a long time - up to 50 days. Sometimes individuals survive and turn into coccidian carriers. Keep them with healthy rabbits can not.
When autopsies of rabbits killed from coccidiosis, you can see that their livers are several times larger than normal. On its surface threads or dense grains of white color are clearly visible. Their size can reach a pea.
White spots visible on the liver are oocyst accumulations. If you open them, cheesy mass stands out. In addition, the bile ducts are dilated, there is an excess of connective tissue.
The disease of this form is reflected not only in the liver. The intestine is inflamed when opened, although there are no nodules on its mucosa. The combination of the two forms of the disease is the most dangerous and often leads to the rapid death of individuals.
Diagnosis, drug treatment
The diagnosis of rabbit cases with coccidosis is made after laboratory tests. The feces or tissues of the affected organs, taken at the autopsy, are sent for analysis. Also take into account the symptoms and the epizootic situation.
Now how to treat coccidiosis in rabbits. Today there are a lot of drugs that help and sell well in any veterinary pharmacy. It:
When treating rabbits for coccidiosis, medication should be started at the very first symptoms.
Sulfadimetoksin and sulfapyridazin dissolved in water, give to drink animals. The dosage is 0.2 g per 1 kg of weight on the first day of illness, then at 0.1 g per kilogram. Therapy is carried out for 4 days, then interrupted for 5 days and repeat the course.
Phthalazole and norsulfazole should be given together. Once a day, the rabbits are fed for 1 kg of weight 0.1 g of the first preparation and 0.3 g of the second. Therapy lasts 5 days, after the same break it is repeated.
Solicox is low toxic and often used. Animals need to drink a day, the total dose - 0.4 ml per 1 kg.
Dosages and use of other drugs
Very effective against coccidiosis in rabbits dithrim. With his help, even very sick animals can be released. For treatment, make a solution: 1 ml of the drug in 1 liter of pure water. First, the rabbits are given it to drink for 5 days, then they pause for 2 days, and then they are watered for another 3 days.
Furazolidone is used at 30 mg per 1 kg of animal weight once a day.
Good cure baycox. It is considered one of the most effective and safe. Used differently. You can dilute it with water and give it to pets. To do this, use a solution of 2.5% per liter of liquid take 2 ml. You can also feed the rabbits with undiluted 5% preparation (0.2 ml per 1 kg). The course is 2 days, but if the animals have not recovered, after 5 days it is repeated.
Now you know how to treat Ameriosis. If therapy is started as soon as the first signs of the disease appear, mortality will be minimal.
If coccidiosis occurs on the farm more than once, drugs for treatment need to be changed, as coccidia develop resistance to them.
Remember that medication should be accompanied by sanitary and hygienic measures in the household. Sick animals are isolated, all cells and inventory are disinfected with a blowtorch.
Traditional treatments, meat safety
In addition to drugs from coccidiosis for rabbits, you can use proven folk remedies.
One of the most popular is iodine. It makes the environment in the body unfavorable to coccidia, does not allow them to develop, multiply. Also, the use of iodine substances increases the resistance to infection, improves metabolism. Details on how to imbibe rabbits with iodine can be found in the article "Iodine for a rabbit: for what and how to give." The scheme is the same for treatment and prevention.
Lactic acid is also used, which has a beneficial effect on the digestive tract. It is given a five-day course, diluting the acid in water to 0.01%. After a break of 5 days, the treatment is repeated, but a solution of 0.02% is already given.
To cure animals, it is necessary during therapy to give them increased doses of vitamins B1 and A. Sour yogurt and whey are very useful during this period.
Many rabbit breeders are worried about whether the meat of rabbits infected with coccidosis is safe, whether it can be eaten. If it is thoroughly fried or cooked, it is completely safe. Coccidia die quickly at a temperature of 80-100 degrees.
How to protect the economy from the disease
Prevention of coccidiosis in rabbits should be comprehensive. Newborn baby rabbits should be kept in cages, the floors of which are made of 15x15 mm mesh. In one cage there can be no more than 25 individuals.
It is necessary to clean rabbit dwellings every day, and once a week - to disinfect cells and equipment with fire. In drinking bowls, feeders, manger should not be feces. Make sure that they stand correctly and stool could not get there by chance. It is important for the prevention of many diseases, not only coccidiosis.
If the ground is contaminated with rabbit feces, it is impossible to put hay, grass, vegetables, and root vegetables on it. With the onset of heat to transfer animals to succulent feed should be gradually.
Measures to prevent eymerioz include normalization of the diet. Feed must be of high quality with a protein content of not more than 10% per feed unit. Bran, alfalfa, grass from swampy areas can not be given.
Moisture, drafts, moisture in rooms where there are rabbits and in cages are unacceptable.
Other protective measures
To prevent the introduction of coccidia to the farm, it is necessary to acquire new animals only in prosperous farms. When buying, ask for a veterinary certificate, form number 1-ve, or certificate number 4-ve. They will indicate that individuals were examined and not ill with coccidiosis.
Also for the prevention of purchased rabbits left in quarantine for a period of 30 days. During this time, their feces need to pass for analysis. These measures are necessary, even if the purchase all the documents in order.
Many livestock keepers use extreme measures to prevent contamination of livestock. As soon as symptoms of eymerioz appear, the animals are slaughtered so that they do not infect the rest.
As a preventive measure, rabbits are also soldered with a solution of iodine. It is especially important to feed the suckling females, since the young are most often infected by mothers.
There is also a drug for the prevention of Ameriosis - zoalen. For 10 days it is added to the feed at the rate of 250 mg per 1 kg of food. In addition, special feeds are sold in pellets. They contain prophylactic additives against coccidiosis.
Did you have to treat rabbits for this disease? Tell us about your experiences in the comments.
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