Dangerous and deadly diseases of ornamental rabbits are a real scourge of professional rabbit breeders, because during breeding animals have lost the ability to fully resist infections. In some cases, only timely vaccination, as well as quarantine measures, can protect rabbits from infection with dangerous diseases. Treatment of individuals is an extremely complex process, which has a positive effect only in the early stages of the detection of pathology.
The main signs of rabbit disease
If you are engaged in breeding domestic rabbits, then you should carefully follow the recommendations of veterinarians, periodically conducting a review of their pets. With the slightest signs of deviation from the norm, you need to sound the alarm, isolate such an animal from the rest of the herd, and strengthen observation of it.
The main symptoms that indicate a possible animal disease:
- the rabbit loses its appetite, and its coat becomes dull and disheveled;
- diarrhea or constipation occurs;
- the baby hides from the bright light, climbing deep into the cage;
- premature molting and hair loss by tufts begins;
- mucous discharge from the nose and eyes;
- cough begins and body temperature rises.
Sometimes such symptoms are given by improper feeding with the use of food saturated with proteins, therefore, the daily ration of rabbits must be approached with special responsibility.
Be sure to measure the body temperature of the animal. To do this, gently insert a special plastic thermometer into the anus.
The normal body temperature of the rabbit is 38.3-39.5 degrees Celsius, and any deviation from the norm indicates the presence of worms or pathogens of other diseases in the body.
Due to the fact that ornamental rabbits have a weak immunity, their bodies are constantly at risk and subject to dangerous diseases. Lack of timely treatment can lead to a sharp deterioration in health and even death.
The digestive system of rabbits, adapted to the processing and digestion of coarse plant food, takes a huge amount of its body. Therefore, any disease of the gastrointestinal tract disrupts the work of all body systems and can lead to fatal consequences.
When stressful situations arise and when you feed with rolls or cereals, the stomach and intestines of the ornamental rabbit begin to contract abnormally, and the intestinal microflora is out of balance. The animal develops gastrointestinal stasis, characterized by severe constipation and severe pain.
Treatment of this disease requires changes in the diet, stimulation of appetite and abdominal massage. To relieve gas formation rabbit give enterosorbents.
Other diseases of the digestive system
In some cases, long-haired rabbits in the intestine can form hair balls (trichobezoar), which can lead to the formation of gases and obstruction.
Giving fresh fruit to the rabbit will cause you diarrhea, which will leave the hair balls out of the body. If this does not happen, your pet will need surgical treatment.
In young rabbits, often due to improper feeding, there is a blockage of the cecum and colon with mucus. They develop constipation, accompanied by severe pain. If you find such signs, then be sure to give the animal a laxative in the form of a salad or fruit.
After treatment of other diseases with antibiotics in the gastrointestinal tract of ornamental rabbits, dysbacteriosis can develop, which is accompanied by diarrhea and a rapid weakening of the animal. For the treatment is used "Nystatin" and transfer to diet food.
Due to the large amount of acid secreted by the stomach, some individuals may develop peptic ulcer disease. To identify it is very difficult, because the rabbit has no gag reflexes. Animals just lose their appetite and feel depressed. For prevention and treatment, it is better to periodically add small doses of anti-ulcer drugs to rabbit feed.
Deadly diseases of rabbits
The most dangerous infectious diseases of rabbits are myxomatosis and viral hemorrhagic disease. Their pathogens are spread through animal contact with each other, and are also transmitted by blood-sucking insects - fleas, lice, mosquitoes and mosquitoes.
The main signs of such diseases are an increase in the body temperature of the ornamental rabbit, the appearance of signs of pneumonia, conjunctivitis, and also swelling of the body.
There is no way to treat these diseases, therefore, sick animals are to be destroyed, and their carcasses are burned.
The only reliable means of protection is timely vaccination, which you can read about in the article “Using the Associated Vaccine for Rabbits”.
When infectious rhinitis in animals begins inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. The rapid spread of the disease contributes to the large density of rabbits.
In animals, the temperature rises, purulent nasal discharge appears, and breathing becomes difficult. Treatment with a 15% solution of Ekmonovocillin is advisable to carry out only in the early stages of the disease. In other cases, rabbits should be isolated and slaughtered, and their carcasses burned.
Infectious stomatitis or “wet face disease” may develop in young animals. In sick rabbits in the mouth there are visible areas of the mucous membrane of red color and a whitish film on the tongue.
Animals become lethargic, and their hair loses shine. Appetite significantly reduced. If the treatment is not promptly carried out, then within 1-1.5 weeks the whole population becomes infected, and the mortality rate among sick rabbits reaches 30%.
For treatment use "Biomitsin", "Streptotsid", "Sulfadimezin" or "Penicillin". But it will be correct if you first consult with a veterinarian who will prescribe a course of treatment in accordance with the symptoms and stage of the disease.
With inadequate care, staphylococcal infections can develop in the cells, causing staphylococci in rabbits. Staphylococcus penetrates even the smallest wounds on the skin of animals, causing boils, abscesses and cellulitis.
In the advanced form of staphylococcus in ornamental rabbits, a septic process of general poisoning of the organism develops, which leads to the death of the animal.
When detecting the first signs of disease, rabbits should be transferred to another room and begin a course of treatment. For this, the abscesses and phlegmons are opened, and then processed with streptomycin, zinc or penicillin ointment.
The remains of feed, litter and manure are burned, and the cell itself is treated with a 15% solution of chloramine.
If your pets suddenly start to fall out of wool, this may be due to an extraordinary molt or the defeat of rabbits with fungal infections. Such diseases are very dangerous because the parasites living in the skin produce highly toxic substances that poison the body of the animal.
Serious danger is a skin fungus that causes ringworm.
The fungus itself is not visible to the naked eye and is a thin filament that is distributed inside the skin of the animal. The rabbit sharply loses his appetite, is under stress, his hormones are disturbed.
The disease quickly spreads among animals, and one of its varieties is ringworm.
With the development of dermatomycosis, decorative rabbits feel severe itching in the area of the head and ears, the hair falls out or breaks off, and reddenings are visible on the bald spots and the ichor can stand out.
For treatment, drugs that relieve itching are used, anti-mycotic ointments Saprosan and Unisan are applied to the affected areas.
In addition to fungal infections, blood-sucking insects, among which mites stand out, are extremely dangerous for rabbits. These parasites can be fur (live in wool), subcutaneous and scabby.
The fur mite is much larger than its fellows and can be seen with a magnifying glass. It feeds on wool, provoking its loss in the back, tail.
The subcutaneous mite develops in the deeper layers of the skin. The toxic substances it produces cause constant itching in the back area, and the rabbit often itches about the cell.
Scabies mites are considered to be the most dangerous; they lay holes in the skin for laying eggs. Decorative rabbits itch a lot, causing serious wounds to themselves, which other infections can penetrate.
Traditionally, to remove ticks, the skin and skin of a sick rabbit is treated with sulfuric lime. Injections of the drug "Ivermectin" can be applied.
Be sure to disinfect the cell, as the mites are able to live for a long time outside the body of the host, waiting for the next victim.
Eye diseases of ornamental rabbits
Very often, rabbit breeders engaged in the breeding of ornamental animals face their eye diseases.
The fact that the eyes play a huge role for rabbits, allowing them to get a full overview of the surrounding area. With the slightest visual impairment, they receive serious stress, which inevitably affects all processes of their life activity.
Conjunctivitis is considered the most common eye disease, which is divided into allergic, bacterial and infectious.
If the animal does not have enough vitamin A, then an allergic itch occurs, accompanied by the release of tears. Such conjunctivitis is easily treated by rubbing the eyes of a rabbit with a solution of boric acid or potassium permanganate.
If animals fester or sour eyes, then infection with pathogenic bacteria takes place. Pus should be immediately removed with a swab using antiseptic solutions. Antibiotic treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian only after identification of the pathogen.
Infectious conjunctivitis manifests itself when infected with myxomatosis virus and cannot be treated. The animal must be immediately destroyed and disposed of.
Secondary eye diseases and their treatment
In some rabbits suffering from diabetes mellitus or undergoing encephalitis, a cataract or lens opacification may develop, leading to the development of blindness.
In some cases, glaucoma develops, associated with an increase in intraocular pressure. The rabbit is in severe pain, and the only effective treatment is the removal of such an eyeball.
Inflammation of the cornea or keratitis is accompanied by photophobia, copious tears and pus. Antiseptic solutions and antibacterial ointments are used for treatment.
In the event of head injuries or after the transfer of viral infections, uveitis may develop in rabbits, accompanied by a constant increase in pupil. Such an animal begins to fear the light and becomes clogged in a dark corner. Pet eats worse, and his skin loses its luster. For treatment, anti-inflammatory drugs based on atropine are used.
In small rabbits, dacryocystitis may develop, which is characterized by obstruction of the lacrimal canal, in which disease-causing bacteria can begin to flourish. For treatment, it is necessary to use drops with an antiseptic solution, although in babies the immunity independently cope with this disease.
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