At slaughterhouses slaughter pigs carry conveyor. It is a lot of animals and it is necessary to provide high-speed processing. In large organizations, the process is carried out as the preparation of animals that have the same age indicators. If the production is not too large, the fattening cycle ends in late autumn. It is time to get meat. Technologies and methods have already been worked out. We will talk about them, as well as how to properly slaughter a boar or a sow in a factory.
Slaughterhouse meat factory
At meat processing plants, animals are slaughtered and their carcasses are processed. These organizations are large (500 tons of meat per shift), medium (100 tons) and small (50 tons). The slaughter technology of pigs has a mechanized character due to the almost continuous flow.
In such production there are usually many different departments, which are divided into dirty and clean. The first is the shop of pre-slaughter animals and primary processing of pigs.
Before you carry out the slaughter of pigs, they are kept in the pre-slaughter shop, so that they recover from transportation from the pig farm. The meat processing plant has all the conditions for keeping animals for 2-3 days - feeders, grounds, sheds. The presence of a quarantine zone, an insulator and a sanitary slaughter (for sick animals) is obligatory.
If the production has several floors, then the upper floor should be allocated for the slaughterhouse of pigs. It connects it to other points vertically through conveyors and pipelines.
A pig slaughter shop is a production facility and must comply with certain rules. Walls, ceilings, partitions, floors - everything is smooth, made of waterproof material. The surface of the flooring is built with a slope to the drain. Sewage and filter for sewage treatment, as well as high-quality ventilation are required.
Other killer places
Slaughter of pigs can be made directly and on pig farms. Then there should be refrigerators to store the meat and fat obtained. A room equipped with such cameras is called a slaughterhouse. After cutting, carcasses are sent to meat processing plants and processing plants. The other part remains in storage pending implementation.
Slaughter points are stationary or mobile organizations where sausage shops can be at the same time. In such enterprises there is everything you need: pre-slaughter and production sites (slaughtering, cutting, processing, refrigerator).
At the slaughterhouse of any of the above enterprises, there is approximately the same slaughter of pigs. It is necessary to adhere to the following sequence:
- leading animals to places of slaughter;
- stunning pigs;
- hanging to drain the blood;
- cleansing skins from bristles and hair;
- scorching and cleaning pig skin;
- removal of internal organs;
- Cutting on poltushi.
Next, meat products and internal organs are subjected to laboratory tests for which the necessary areas are selected. After that, the pork brand and placed in the refrigerator.
Inspection and stunning
At meat processing plants of animals (pig, piglets, boars) before slaughter examines a veterinarian. If everything is good in its direction, then they are washed (10 minutes with a shower or a hose) and sent to the slaughterhouse one by one. It is quite difficult. Various items are used for fitting pigs - crackers, electronic adjustments with a voltage not exceeding 25 V. Here it is important that these devices do not damage the skin. Sometimes use a conveyor.
Considering that before slaughter, pigs are no longer fed in 12-18 hours, then a piglet can be lured to the place of execution with the help of feed. But in large productions, this method is rarely used.
Now you need to stun a pig. To do this, use electricity, which is supplied through various devices. It can be forceps, which are two levers. At their ends there are contact tips. Such a device is brought to the animal from two sides behind the ears or to the temples and serves current. At a voltage of 200-250 V, the tongs should be held for 8-12 seconds, and when the voltage is 65-100 V and with a frequency of 50 Hz, it is necessary to hold 6-8 seconds. The second option is applicable to a one-track stack that is applied to the back of the head of pigs.
Such a supply of current will not kill the animal, but will stun. In this state, the pig will be from 2 to 5 minutes, so it is quickly sent to the next stage.
In some countries, carbon dioxide is used to stun, from which pigs fall into a state of anesthesia. It lasts 1-2 minutes.
Bleeding and vein dissection
We proceed to how to slaughter a pig after stunning. This is the next stage. The animal is quickly hung by its hind legs, using a chain, which with the help of a roller is fixed on the elevator assembly of the system. If the shop is small, the piglets are transferred from one stage to another manually, if large, then on conveyors.
In the state of electrosurgical anesthesia in the pig, the work of the heart is not disturbed, and the exsanguination is most fully effected.
Under production conditions, the exsanguination of pigs must begin no later than two minutes after stunning and loss of consciousness. The immovable animal on the conveyor belt is brought to an employee who is throwing a knife with a straight blade into the throat. It is inserted into the neck, approximately where the connection with the body is. In that area, the arteries and veins come from the chest cavity. Thus, dissected vena cava. Since the heartbeat is still going on, the blood is flowing in an abundant stream. Draining takes place in a few minutes.
The blood spoils rather quickly, and if it remains a lot in the body of the pig, then the meat will not be stored for a long time. Her (for technical purposes) is collected in a special chute, which passes under the bleeding conveyor. This process lasts 6-8 minutes. If blood is supposed to be used for making sausage, it is collected in special clean containers.
Slaughtering pigs in slaughterhouse conditions in this way is considered the most humane, since the animal is unconscious in the bleeding process and does not feel anything. It should be noted that the slaughter of the piglet takes place in the same sequence as in the adult. This is done to achieve young slaughter weight. Read more in the article "How to slaughter a pig."
Processing of pigs and piglets proceeds to the following stages, at which they receive meat carcass and food and technical products. This means that in a bloodless animal the skin is processed, the internal organs are pulled out and the pork body is cut into pieces. This is how it happens.
The pig's carcass is exsanguinated, but it is considered dirty. It is washed in a special apparatus. After that, remove the stubble. Scald carcasses occur in hot water steam baths. At a temperature of 59-64 degrees, the process lasts up to 7 minutes. This will allow you to easily remove the bristles and hairs, as the skin softens.
After that, the carcass is immersed in a scraping machine, where the bristles are removed and washed off with water. It lasts 25-30 seconds. However, the pig's body cannot be so perfectly cleaned, so the next step is drying and a furnace of opalochny. The article "Singing Pigs" contains a lot of additional information.
Then the carcass is cleaned of burnt bristles and sent to the removal of internal organs. After bleeding this is done no later than 45 minutes.
If the sows had to be slaughtered, and embryos were found inside them, they are extracted and sent to the technical products workshop. The same with the udder. When the inside of a pig is removed, the walls of the intestines, stomach, bladder and gall bladders cannot be damaged. The ingress of liquids in these organs to meat will spoil its taste.
When the carcass is fully prepared, it begins to clean and cut into pieces, which will later be processed, branded and sent to the refrigerator.
With the help of a sledgehammer
When a wild boar or a pig is slaughtered, the prerequisite is stunning. This technology works, both at meat-packing plants and pig farms, and at home.
When working with a sledgehammer, it is important to stun a pig with one blow to the head, just above the eyebrows. Otherwise, the animal becomes aggressive, and it will be more difficult to cope with it. If, after an unsuccessful strike, they were also killed for a long time, then this will adversely affect the quality of meat products. Since it will produce adrenaline and toxins in the body.
When an ungraded boar is slaughtered, a sledgehammer may not help, as it is usually very large and strong. His stun will help a special gun or a blank shot from a gun. Alone with him can not cope, but the three of them is quite possible. After slaughter, first of all, before exsanguination, it is necessary to cut out the testicles, the sexual organ and the sac with preputial fluid. It is possible that the smell of meat will not be so specific. The murder of sexually mature males should ideally occur two months after they were castrated.
You can kill a pig, boar or a pig yourself only if you succeed in stunning it with a blow or a shock. Taser help cope with the task. Next, you need to act according to plan - stunning, draining blood, burning the skin with a torch. But still you may need help in catching an animal. Details in the article "How can slaughter pigs at home."
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