About how much a pig grows before slaughter and how many products you can get from it, we will tell in this article. The question worries many beginning livestock breeders, and for good reason. Piglet can not overfeed and delay slaughter. However, it is also not necessary to kill him too soon, because then you do not use the full fattening potential of the animal. In addition, we will touch on the topic of milk pigs: until what age do we need to slaughter them, how to do it correctly, so as not to spoil the delicacy.
When can you cut an adult animal
The pig's early maturity and its readiness for slaughter depend on the breed and diet. On average, up to a mass of 100 kg, these animals grow 6-8 months, but some individuals gain such weight by the year. Pigs can be raised further, but in those slaughtered at an earlier age, the meat is softer and not as fat as those of the older ones.
In large enterprises, pigs are not kept longer than 6-9 months. Among the breeds that are already ready to be slaughtered as early as 6-7 months, we should mention Vietnamese low-tailed piglets, with which you can get acquainted in detail in the articles "Vietnamese Piglets and Pigs" and "Pulling the Angry-Blow Pigs".
Often sows and boars gain 130-150 kg of weight in 1.2-1.5 years. This is a good mass. However, the animals need to watch. If you continue to feed him, and the weight does not change within 2-3 weeks, you can easily kill the pig - it will no longer gain.
There is one more nuance. If you feed a pig too long, it stops gaining muscle mass, but it is actively increasing fat. Such an individual will be less valuable, since there will not be much meat from it, and it will be too fat.
Thus, it is best to cut a pig to a year. Slaughter is planned for a cool time - autumn or spring. If you need to kill an animal in the summer, it is done not later than 5 am, otherwise the meat may deteriorate.
Most often, pigs are slaughtered in the winter, because in cold weather the cost of food increases, and the owners try to avoid it. In addition, it is much easier to store meat even without using refrigeration units. But this applies only to private farms. On industrial production, the seasons do not greatly affect the time of slaughter of animals. Rather, it depends on customer requests and contracts concluded with pork distributors.
How many products can you get
The weight of the carcass that can be used as food, in relation to the weight of a live pig, is called the slaughter yield. It includes not only meat and fat, but also the skin and head. It is considered the weight of the ink without blood, bristles, legs and viscera (leaving only the kidneys with kidney fat). However, most organs - the liver, heart, lungs, and even the intestines can be sold.
The percentage of slaughter yield in pigs weighing 100 kg is on average 75%. At the same time, the amount of meat, fat and other components is as follows:
- from 63 kg to 72 kg - meat;
- from 14 kg to 25 kg - fat;
- from 500 to 600 g - cartilage, tendons;
- from 12 kg to 13.5 kg - bones.
Offal has two categories of value. The first, more valuable, is the heart, kidney, tongue, liver, diaphragm. The second includes the lungs, stomach, esophagus, legs, larynx, head without tongue and brains, ears, tail, trachea.
The main by-products from a pig weighing 100 kg can be obtained approximately as much: lungs - 800 g, liver - 1.5 kg, hearts - 300 g
Note that the largest slaughter yield is shown by such breeds as Duroc (85-86%), Vietnamese Vislobryukh pig (from 85% to 95%), Berkshire and Mirgorod (up to 85%). But the other species are not far behind. Pigs generally compare favorably with other household animals with good slaughter rates.
The younger the animal, the more tender the meat.
Suckling pig meat is considered to be dietary and delicious. It is not as popular as ordinary pork, but there are lovers who prefer it.
The suckling pig is a cub of no more than 8 weeks of age who ate only pig's milk.
The meat of such piglets is juicy, tender, there is no fat in it, but a lot of vitamins and useful microelements. As a rule, these animals are not chopped, the piglet is prepared entirely. Take out only the insides. At the same time offal is often used for his own stuffing, chopping them and mixing with spices.
Dairy pigs are slaughtered on the same principles as adult animals. Read more in the article "Technologies and methods of slaughtering pigs." One difference: they usually do it on a special stool. From one piglet, which weighed up to 20 kg before slaughter, the slaughter yield will be 75%, that is, approximately 15 kg.
Some believe that slaughtering young animals under 4 months is not cost-effective. They continue to grow longer than 8 weeks, but at the same time they call piglets of this age dairy. It is not right. A true dairy pig should be between 1 and 2 months old. At 4 weeks old, it weighs 6–9 kg, at eight it can weigh up to 20 kg. From the point of view of cooking, the minimum weight is considered ideal, otherwise the meat will be tougher than it should be.
When sows and boars are slaughtered
Commercially, dairy pigs are rarely sent for slaughter. They are delivered in limited quantities or to order. As a rule, these are surplus offspring or culling.
Boars are also rarely slaughtered, for the simple reason that there are not so many of them in the farm. More often this fate befalls hogs (castrated boars). Manufacturers are sent for slaughter after several years of work, without delaying much of the aging process (maximum 5-6 years), otherwise their meat will become unfit for food even after castration.
This operation must be done no later than two months before slaughter. Otherwise, eating boar meat is impossible. Unpleasant smell and taste can not be removed by any means - neither long-term heat treatment, nor soaking in vinegar will help.
As for breeding females, it’s easier with them. However, with age, their meat also loses its softness and tenderness, so owners, as a rule, after 8-12 farrowings, prefer to slaughter a pig, while the products derived from it can be sold.
Basics of food animals intended for meat
Being engaged in pig breeding, targeted feeding of pigs should be started from 2.5-3 months. Then the animals will be able to quickly gain maximum weight.
Feed consumption up to 6 months will be approximately 4 kg per piglet per day. The main part of the compound feed, but it is worth including in the diet as well boiled vegetables - cabbage, carrots.
In households, piglets are often given boiled potatoes as a base, but it is better to use mixed feed. On it a pig will gain weight faster. In addition, it will need less than potatoes: 350 kg per year against 1200 kg. In addition, it must be boiled, which requires additional time costs.
You need to constantly monitor the weight of the animal. As soon as it reaches 70 kg, intensive feeding begins. During this period, the pig should gain up to 800 g per day. During the day, he should eat 8-9 kg of feed.
It is convenient to count the amount of feed in feed units, you can focus on the table:
In feed units (cu) measure the nutritional value of the feed. One k.e. corresponds to 150 g and 1400 kcal. This is the nutritional value of 1 kg of oats.
The diet of pigs, which must be grown for slaughter, must include protein. At the beginning of fattening need about 200 g per day. Gradually, the volume is brought to 400-450 g.
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