Among the diversity of pig breeds, the black pig is particularly interesting. Animals of this group are suitable for large livestock complexes and for home breeding. They are distinguished, first of all, by skin color, which, depending on the variety, can vary in shades. But the main advantage of piglets of this breed line is unpretentious content and almost complete omnivorous. However, each species has its own unique features. About this and talk in the article.
General characteristics of the group
Black pigs, like their bright relatives, are divided into three types - meat, greasy and meat-greasy.
The main characteristic of the meat type is the slow deposition of fat reserves against the background of well-developed musculature. Such pigs are usually grown precisely for the purpose of obtaining high-quality and lean meat. Among the external signs can be distinguished massive rear ham, surpassing the front.
The animals belonging to the greasy type, on the contrary, quickly accumulate fat layer. Such pigs are often called bacon. They have a front part of the body significantly larger than the back.
Meat-grease or universal type - the optimal combination of meat and fat. At the same time, the taste of all the products obtained are at a high level. Animals have proportional body size.
There are many species of rocks of the group in question, but there are some that are deservedly considered outstanding. We will talk about this below.
Funny and miniature
One of the most popular breeds today are Vietnamese visrubry black pigs. Initially, this line was perceived by farmers as exotic - the miniature size of adult individuals and unusual appearance did not allow to consider it as a source of fat and meat. Now the situation has changed dramatically - precociousness and unpretentiousness of pigs contributed to the growth of interest of livestock breeders from around the world.
The breed was bred in Vietnam at the end of the twentieth century. But the tribal work on the line does not stop today. The most actively involved in selection are in Canada and Hungary.
Vietnamese visrubry pigs got their name for the special structure of the body - a large, rounded belly literally hangs down to the ground. The head is small in comparison with the rest of the body, the neck is short and very thick. Given the very thin and short legs, the animal really looks funny.
The weight of an adult individual ranges from 50-150 kg. The breed belongs to the meat-greasy type. The meat is low in cholesterol.
The main advantages of the breed are precocity, high fertility and unpretentiousness. Sexual maturity of males occurs at the age of 6 months, females - at 4. In one farrowing it can be from 9 to 20 piglets. Pregnancy in sows of this breed lasts about 115 days.
More information can be found in the article "Vietnamese Pigs and Pigs."
Giant with English roots
Large black breed of pigs is one of the most popular lines in the world. It is based on three other breeds - Neapolitan, English Long-eared and Chinese. This line is often bred in its pure form. But not rarely used as a basis for breeding new breeds.
Such pigs have proportional body size. The back is flat, slightly elongated. The head is medium in size and blends smoothly into a short, powerful neck. The chest is well developed, has a somewhat barrel-shaped form. Legs powerful, strong, relatively high. The color of the animals is coal black, the hair is elongated, thick.
An adult male can weigh up to 400 kg, a female - within 200-300 kg. This is a vivid example of a universal type - the output of meat from an individual is about 52%, fat - not less than 41%. The pig meat of this breed is highly appreciated.
Sows of large black breed are very good moms. In the offspring mainly 10-12 kids. Piglets are rapidly gaining weight. Under the condition of the correct content, the weight of a half-year pig is 100 kg.
The main disadvantage of the breed line is a tendency to obesity. To avoid this, you need to reduce the amount of high-carb feed and equip a spacious aviary so that the animal can run freely.
Berkshire Meat Giant
Berkshire breed is meat-greasy type. The main characteristic of the line is precocity. At 6 months, the pig already weighs about 95 kg. If the main goal of the breeder is to obtain high-quality meat, then the slaughter of animals is recommended when the weight reaches 115 kg.
Chinese, Neapolitan and Chinese breeding animals participated in the creation of the Berkshis pig breed, except for individuals from Berkshire County in England. And from each participant were taken the best qualities.
Adults have a strong body structure, with a short neck and a relatively small head. Ears are small, mostly erect. The chest is deep, the back is flat, wide. A distinctive feature of the breed is a well developed ham section and bulging sides. Skin color - black, there is a thick coat.
The weight of an adult wild boar ranges from 215-255 kg, mumps - up to 255 kg. Quality output from slaughter is at least 81%. The meat has a very high taste characteristics.
Among the disadvantages of the Berkshire breed can be identified infertility. In one litter from 4 to 8 black pigs.
Kemerovo black and white
The black and white pig is the result of crossing several breeds, including the Berkshire. This is another bright representative of the sebaceous-meat type. Another name for the line is Kemerovo, which is associated with the breeding site.
The body of the pig is elongated. The head is proportional to the size of the body, the neck is short, thick. The back is wide, relatively torso. Skin color - black, with pronounced spots of white color.
The coat on the pigmented areas of the skin is black, elongated. There are white spots on the forehead, tail and legs. The line is focused on growing in the conditions of the Siberian climate.
The weight of the boar reaches 350 kg, the mumps significantly less - up to 250 kg. The output of meat and fat - about 83%.
The main advantages of the breed - precocity and fertility. Piglets gain weight at 740 g per day, and at the age of 7 months their body weight is 100 kg. In one litter from 10 to 12 piglets.
Motley pigs - not only beautiful, but also profitable
Another species, which is very popular with domestic farmers, is black-and-white pigs. Unlike the above breed, this line is greasy.
There are four subspecies of the black-and-white line — Mirgorod, Pyetren, North Caucasus, and Belarus. The unifying factor is not only the color, but also the characteristic external signs.
Distinctive features of black and motley breed:
- the body of the animal is strong, all parts are proportional to each other;
- the ridge line is thin, but powerful, straight;
- the chest is different in depth;
- well developed leg joints;
- the head is not wide, the transition from the head to the neck and body is almost imperceptible;
- ears long, erect;
- the sacrum has a rounded shape;
- wool thickness depends on the time of year - in winter there is an undercoat;
- black and white colors contrast with each other.
Black-and-white pigs differ from other species in white color with multiple black spots of small size.
Weight boar - from 230 to 350 kg, females - up to 250. Slaughter yield - in the range of 65-70%.
The main advantages of the breed are early ripeness and fecundity. The motley piglets are the real champions for a daily increase of 750 g. Thus, a body weight of 100 kg is reached at 185 days of life. The survival rate of offspring is over 90%. In one offspring an average of 11-12 calves.
Black-and-white sows are very good mothers, so a breeder does not have to spend time and energy on caring for offspring.
Each subspecies has its own unique features and characteristics. For example, the fat of pigs of Mirgorod nature is considered a standard - it is tender, tasty and without an unpleasant aroma. Full description in the article "Pigs of the Migorod breed".
Black-motley pigs of Pietren are not prone to obesity, for this reason the boars of this line are used in the breeding of meat breeds. Read about them article "Characteristics of pig breed petren."
Speaking of the North Caucasian black-and-white pig, it is impossible not to single out the precociousness of this subspecies. Females become ready for breeding at the age of 8-9 months.
Representatives of the Belarusian subspecies often have X-shaped legs. It is for this reason that the breed is becoming less and less popular among breeders. All details can be found in the article "Belarusian breeds of pigs."
Among the shortcomings of the black-and-white line, it is possible to single out not the highest quality characteristics of meat. The flesh turns fat. At the moment, breeders continue to work on improving the quality of meat of this natural line.
The breeds listed in this article that belong to the group of black pigs are excellent for breeding in all regions of Russia. Since we are talking about one breed group, we can say that the conditions of detention and the diet are not particularly different.
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