To organize the pairing of pigs, you need to choose the right pair and create good conditions for it. In theory, this does not seem difficult, but in fact mating animals requires thorough preparation by the owner. The quality of future piglets and the health of the producers depend on how responsibly the farmer will react to this process. In our article we will tell about all the intricacies of mating male and female.
How to choose a male
The choice of the boar-maker plays a much larger role than the choice of the female. When selecting a pair, animals of both sexes must be of the same class. Normally, if the boar's class is higher than that of the pig, it should by no means be lower. Otherwise, the breed characteristics of the offspring will worsen.
For mating, a purebred male with proven productivity is chosen. It is advisable to see the piglets received from him, to assess their quality. If possible, get a veterinarian.
Specialist assesses reflexes and boar health, sperm analysis. It should be transparent, light with small patches. If sperm has a reddish or greenish tint, an unpleasant smell, then boar is not taken for mating. If this happens again, it is rejected completely.
The activity and number of sperm are also recorded in the laboratory. At home, such an analysis is not carried out, but if finances allow, it will not be superfluous.
It is best to allow the boar to mate, which is not used too often, but it is not allowed to “stay idle”. He must be completely healthy. Its weight is also important. It is necessary that the male and female belong to the same weight category. If the boar is heavier, it can injure the pig, even break its spine during mating.
Choosing the perfect female
A pig is chosen not so meticulously as a boar, but much depends on it. In this case, the female does not necessarily show the vet, all the pros and cons can be estimated by eye at home.
Best covered female born in the winter. Such animals are stronger, tougher and healthier. The pig should be calm, docile - it will take better care of the piglets.
Females, like males, are selected for breeding work at the age of 4-5 months. If you buy a pig, ask how many brothers and sisters she has. The more piglets in the litter, the higher will be its fecundity.
Pay attention to pig mammary glands. She should have a minimum of 12 developed, convex nipples. From this depends on the survival of the future offspring. If the nipples are sunken or flat, the born piglets will be undernourished or will die of starvation.
As for the exterior, a breeding pig should have a flat, strong back, an elongated body, a wide chest, strong legs with clean, healthy hooves. The optimal age of the female is 2-4 years.
When can pigs mate
Unlike many other animals, pigs breed easily, females bring up to 180 pigs for the entire period of economic use.
Puberty, readiness for mating in females and males occurs approximately at the same time. The pig feels the hunt for the first time at 5-6 months, but physically it is not yet ready to bear the offspring. The first mating is allowed not earlier than 9-10 months. However, it is not possible to postpone it for long either. Late first pregnancy greatly reduces the further productivity of the sow.
Boars actively develop from 4 months, but they can be used as producers not earlier than 10 months. At the same time, they are “efficient” at any time, but it is only necessary to cover the pig during the hunt, 12 hours after its occurrence.
Signs of hunting:
- swelling of the genitals;
- mucous discharge;
- decreased appetite;
- nervous behavior;
- the female jumps on other pigs, imitating sexual intercourse.
Read more about hunting in the article "How many days pigs walk."
Adult boars-producers cover 30-40 females per year, "beginners" - no more than 10-15. If the rate is exceeded, the male's body will be depleted.
In addition to age, look at the weight of the pigs. It should be at least 100 kg in females (at home, on farms - 120 kg) and 130 kg in males. If an individual does not reach these values, although it is suitable for age, then 1-2 months before mating it begins to be fattened.
Natural sexual contact
You can fertilize a pig in a natural or artificial way.
In the first case, the usual mating of pigs occurs. There are two techniques: manual and free.
When a manual boar-maker is mixed with a particular pig in a special pen. It is important that the male was on its territory. The female is brought to him, and not vice versa. Otherwise, the boar will begin to study the situation, will become alert and will not react to the partner.
In the arena where the mating will take place, first the uterus is brought, and then the male. Then you need to get out of the pen and do not disturb the pair. You can watch, but unnoticed.
If mating pigs is slow, do not need to stimulate animals. On the contrary, when the male and female are better acquainted, the chances of successful contact will increase.
The boar should cover the pig twice with an interval of 12-18 hours. At the time of the break, the uterus and producers are kept separately.
Freestyle mating is practiced at home. Male and several females keep together, mate in free mode. The disadvantage of this method in the rapid depletion of the male.
If partners of different sizes and other nuances
Being engaged in domestic breeding of pigs, not everyone can pick up the perfect pair of animals. It happens that the boar is much larger than the uterus or vice versa. To solve this problem there are special devices.
For mating small pigs with large males use machines. They are made in such a way that when mating, the boar puts its front legs on the boards and leans on them, and does not lean on the female. If a large uterus and a small young boar mate, a special springboard is placed under the hind legs of the latter. So he gets taller.
As soon as the pigs' mating is over, the pair is bred. The female is taken to a separate pen and left there until her hunting is over. Then transferred to a regular pigsty.
Sometimes it happens that a pig suddenly loses hunting in the midst of mating. In this case, you need to lead her away and wait until she starts to show interest in the male again. If the pig goes in the direction where the boar is, - the mating can be continued.
If the pig does not react at all, leave it alone. A little later, try to make a couple again or pick up another boar.
What to do with a passive male
Sometimes, to the dismay of the owners, boars-manufacturers evade the execution of the “duty”. Do not immediately reject the animal. Unwillingness to mate may be due to various problems.
A big role is played by the nutrition and mode of life of the male. We can not allow both undernourishment and obesity. Stress, illness, and too frequent mating also cause reduced libido. A domestic boar is not a wild boar that is used to living in harsh conditions.
Often, to improve sexual functions and to obtain sperm for artificial insemination, boar training for stuffed sows is used.
Begin on reaching the boar 6 months. The effigy is placed in the machine. For realism, it should be tight with pigskin. Also use special sprays with a characteristic smell for the female.
In a stuffed animal, an artificial vagina is made, equipped with heating and lubricated with lubricant. The operator assists the male during the landing. This is especially important for young boars who have not yet been in contact with real pigs. Of course, the animal will need time to get used to stuffed animals.
If the farmer cares why the boar does not go to the mating, he should show it to the vet. You can use drugs to stimulate potency. So, gamavit normalizes metabolic processes, increases the endurance of the body. It is administered intramuscularly at 0.1 ml per 1 kg of weight. Also in the feed add extract of Eleutherococcus 0.1 mg per 1 kg of mass of boar.
Artificial insemination and signs of gestation
For artificial insemination using sperm, which gave the crown (uncastrated male). It is introduced into the vagina of a pig with the help of special devices. Only a specialist should do this. This method is considered the most practical and effective, although at home it is rarely used.
Now how to learn that fertilization has happened. Pregnant pigs react aggressively to males. They become drowsy, sleep a lot and eat. May be nervous because of the unusual state of health. Whether a pig is covered or not can be judged by the timing of the onset of the hunt. If 3 weeks have passed since mating, and the female does not want boars, then she is almost certainly pregnant.
There are also laboratory and clinical methods for determining pregnancy. For more details, see the article "How can you tell if a pregnant pig is pregnant or not?"
Fertilization of animals after giving birth
Having given birth to a piglet, the pig for some time is not ready for re-mating. How to determine when it can again be reduced to the male, will tell below.
It happens that literally a week after farrowing a pig shows signs of hunting. However, no need to hurry. Such a physiological process is not always accompanied by ovulation, and therefore the individual does not become pregnant.
Often, breeders make the pig re-covered during lactation. But it is better to wait for the time for weaning the piglets, then give the female 5-6 days to rest and only then include her again in the work. This will help avoid overloading the sows body.
After weaning, the uterus enters the hunt in 5-7 days on average. Sometimes after 3 days. If more than 10 days have passed, and the pig does not react to the producer boar, its desire is stimulated artificially.
Full information you will find in the article "Farrow pig for the first and subsequent times."
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