Newborn piglets born into the world need special care. Being in the womb in sterile conditions at a stable comfortable temperature, the fetus, through the placenta, received the necessary nourishment, oxygen. In the first 48 hours after farrowing, we get used to the new environment. In order to avoid high mortality (the average rate reaches 26%), pigs need to be provided with optimal conditions for survival.
Preparing for the birth of babies
3-4 days before the onset of labor, it is recommended to reduce the daily ration of the sow by half, this will relieve the gastrointestinal tract of the animal and does not hamper the fruits. It is also necessary to reduce the time of walking, with the animals need to be treated smoothly, without causing excessive anxiety.
You need to regularly monitor the sow, so as not to miss the start of labor. Farrowing usually occurs at night, so it should be monitored at night. Early response will help prevent unpleasant moments associated with eating or crushing calves mother.
Somewhere in two days should be prepared:
- dry sterile rags;
- iodine solution;
- fresh bedding material;
- a box in which pigs will be placed after reception.
It is necessary to carry out preventive measures in the room where the sow will give birth and stay with the offspring. For this wall whiten, prepare a fresh litter. In the article "Cages for sows and piglets" there is information about options for safe placement of the uterus and offspring.
By the beginning of farrowing in the pigsty unauthorized persons are unacceptable. If necessary, obstetric care is provided to the sow.
On the farm, farrowing is carried out in specially designed machines, which provide partitions for the uterus and newborns. When childbirth is taken at home in an ordinary pigsty, you need to monitor the behavior of the sow. If she behaves aggressively, then do not allow pigs to her until full delivery.
Obstetric care for babies
Sows do not lick the offspring, so after birth the piglets are treated. It is necessary to release the airway of the baby from the film and wipe it dry. You can make a light massage - healthy babies emit a shrill ringing screech.
In newborn piglets, the umbilical cord is cut, departing 3 cm from the body, and its edge is treated with iodine. More information about the reception of offspring can be from the article "Pine Groom in the first and subsequent times."
If after the birth of a newborn does not show signs of life, he makes a massage, patting the sides, bend and unbend the limbs. You can put a pig for 3-5 minutes in hot water (temperature 40-41 degrees), leaving the head on the surface. Such manipulations contribute to the fact that he comes to feelings.
Then the newborn is placed in a pre-prepared box for the rest of the piglets until dry. Above the box you need to place an infrared (or the usual power of 150 W) lamp at a distance of 50 cm.
Optimum environment in the first hours of life
For the full growth of a small pig, you need to create a comfortable environment even during intrauterine development:
- keep an eye on the sow;
- observe her diet and walks;
- perform hygiene measures to maintain cleanliness in the pigsty.
It is equally important to take delivery correctly and ensure a comfortable adaptation of the young. Often the last piglet is born with the placenta, so you need to help him free himself so that he does not suffocate.
Be sure to remove the afterbirth - it is noted that the sows that have eaten the afterbirth can later eat the young.
A newborn pig is very weak and requires round-the-clock attention. With a weight of 300-1800 g, babies have practically no fat layer, so they are very sensitive to temperature changes.
Overcooling in the first hours of life leads to a weakening, delayed development and even death. Comfortable temperature for piglets is + 26 + 28 degrees.
Piglet weight directly affects survival rates: born with a mass of 300-900 g die in 83% of cases, 900-1400 g - up to 33%, 1400-1800 - up to 18%.
In this case, the weight of piglets is influenced not only by properly organized feeding of the sow during gestation, but also by the age of the pig. In old animals, droppings are usually weak and lightweight. The time of farrowing also influences the survival rate: autumn litter is more resistant, for example, than spring.
Optimum air humidity is 65-70%. It is important that the room where the sow and offspring are located is well ventilated. At the same time it is necessary to exclude drafts that can cause respiratory diseases.
Properly organized first meal
In the first two weeks, the pigs should eat their mother's milk. It is necessary to attach the newborn cub to the nipple of the sow no later than an hour after birth, so that he can get colostrum, rich in mother's antibodies. This is very important for the development of immunity, otherwise the pig will be weak, there will be problems with the respiratory and digestive systems.
Even if the birth is still ongoing, the first babies born can be attached to the nipples. This helps the sow to calm down, and sucking stimulates labor pains.
The pig's udder must be clean. Starting from the first application, the piglets are fixed to certain nipples. If in the litter the number of babies exceeds the number of nipples, then the “extra” ones are transferred to artificial feeding, or they are transferred to another sow.
For convenience of feeding in the future each piglet can be numbered in accordance with the location of the nipples. The front nipples are more milky, so weaker piglets are applied to them to level the litter. Babies for the first time should have constant access to the nipples of the sow. They feed every 45-60 minutes during the day, while milk flow lasts no more than one minute.
Milk in sows is fat (8.5% on average) and nutritious - 1 kg 1425 kcal of energy. It contains:
- 21.2% dry matter;
- 9.6% fat;
- 6.1% protein;
- 4.6% - lactose;
- 0.9% mineral substances.
There is an insufficient amount of iron in pig milk, which is important for the full and healthy growth of offspring.
In this regard, it is necessary to inject this substance into the femoral part of the body of pigs for 2-4 days in the amount of 1 ml, and also for 10 days - 1.5 ml. You can also apply a 0.5% solution of sulphate of iron on the udder before planting young.
The positive effects of the early introduction of top dressing on the development of offspring
Additionally, organized food has a good effect on the condition of babies. At the age of 4-5 days, the piglets should be given fresh water, and from 5-6 days they can be taught to malted concentrates, hay flour. From the second week of life, succulent feed is gradually introduced.
Take care that the sow does not have access to the "baby" trough. It should be 70-80 cm long with fixed 3-4 impermeable partitions. For pigs, it will be useful to eat steamed bone meal, crushed chalk, and trofluoride phosphate. A lack of salt can lead to rickets, stunting, anemia of small pigs.
Do not leave leftover food. After feeding, the trough needs to be cleaned and rinsed with boiling water. But the water tank should always be filled.
Approximately on the 6th day, the rest of the teeth erupt in the piglets, - with the first eight they are already born. During this period, they have a special need for chewing. Sprinkle fried grain in the trough, otherwise babies will chew litter, which will adversely affect the work of the digestive system.
Take care of the weedy uterus after farrowing
The process of childbirth tires a sow. After the end of farrowing, it is necessary to replace the litter with a fresh litter and ensure a restful animal rest. It is necessary to monitor the condition of the female. At the first symptoms of infection of the genital tract, engorgement and inflammation of the udder, refusal to eat, you should invite a veterinarian to assist.
Due to the uterine contractions in the body of the pig, the redistribution of the blood supply changes, so there is an additional load on the heart.
As a result of childbirth, the pig loses a lot of liquid, therefore it is important to provide it with clean water (temperature not higher than 10 degrees) in sufficient quantity. So the animal will be able to quench their thirst and produce enough milk to feed the litter.
To eliminate constipation, after 8-10 hours after delivery, give the sow a mash prepared from bran or oatmeal. Liquid feeds have a beneficial effect on the digestive system of the pig and contribute to the normal production of milk. Overabundance of succulent feeds can lead to diarrhea or increased milk formation and, as a result, to mastitis.
Safety and progeny walks
Properly organized care for newborn piglets is very important to preserve the quantity and quality of litter. In the first days of life, piglets are susceptible to various infectious diseases that are easier to prevent than to cure. If you notice that there are injuries on pig nipples, they should be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This minimizes the risk of pathogenic microbes entering the immature digestive tract of babies.
To protect the slow and slow piglets, in the first days of life it is necessary to fence off the machine with a barrier of 20-25 cm. In the future, the kids will become more mobile and active, so the need for such measures will disappear.
For the proper formation of the skeletal system, piglets from five days of age can be released for a walk. In winter, this may be the passage of a pig farm, in the warm season - specially fenced off paddocks.
In winter, complying with animal hygiene requirements is especially important. In the room where the sow with litter is kept, it should be warm, dry and clean, and at the same time quite light. In the darkened pig houses there is a decrease in the activity of animals, they are more located to various diseases.
Excessive moisture should not be allowed. Regular airing will solve such a problem and ensure proper air exchange. The temperature + 26 + 28 is maintained for the first 2-3 days, in the future it is necessary to gradually reduce it by several degrees (every 3-5 days). By the time of weaning, it should be +18 degrees.
Features feeding without sow
If a sow after farrowing behaves aggressively or does not have milk, then the owner will have to deal with newborn babies on their own, having organized artificial feeding. At first, this will take almost all the free time, but as a result you save the offspring.
Replace cow's milk is not enough cow milk, in the mother - more fat and essential trace elements. You can purchase special mixes or prepare them yourself. To do this, take on 1 liter of cow's milk 30 ml of boiled water, 1 egg (preferably homemade), 1 tsp. granulated sugar, vitamins D and A (1 ml), ferrous sulfate 1% - 10 g, amino peptide - 2.5 g.
All ingredients must be thoroughly mixed and the mixture given to the piglets in a warm form (temperature 37-38 degrees). At first, one dose should be 50 g (it is difficult for piglets to adapt to alien food), then it can be gradually increased. Such feedings should be about 16 per day, that is, every 1-1.5 hours.
If the sow does not provide enough milk, in the article “On feeding the piglet suckers” you can read about how to properly care for the young.
Pig production is a profitable agricultural sector. Growing piglets is beneficial for both fattening and selling. However, faced with the first difficulties (reception, processing of pigs, feeding) beginners can give up this venture. We hope that our recommendations will help you grow healthy offspring.
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