Breeding pigs is a profitable business, and pregnant sows occupy a central place in it. Favorable maintenance, high-quality feeding, proper care are the key to easy and healthy pregnancy of the pig. Timely conception, the creation of the most optimal conditions at the time when the pig is carrying piglets, guarantees healthy offspring. However, this period may be different, so let's talk about this in the article.
Choose a sow for offspring
So, we understand how much a pig is in a state of pregnancy, and on what this period depends.
When choosing a female for fertilization, it is better to give preference to local breeds. In order to carry out piglets safely, she must weigh at least 110 kg. At the same time activity and health are the most important qualities. A long body, well-developed nipples, located along the whole body, are necessary for a sow to raise offspring. It is important that their lower line does not overlap the top row. Only in this case, the piglets can have easy access to the mother's milk.
The late pig will be ready for gestation after a year of life, and for early breed it is recommended to carry out the first mating at the age of 9-10 months. It is important that the animal is fully formed. In order to obtain numerous healthy offspring, it is better to choose a pig that has given birth at the age of 2 to 4 years. While pregnancy continues in a pig, it is necessary to provide it with a full balanced nutrition and comfort in maintenance.
How to determine gestation at home
A healthy sow can produce offspring twice a year. Control of fertilization and pregnancy in pigs allows you to create optimal conditions for effective pig breeding.
5 days after mating, you can determine the following signs of gestation:
- discharge of white color from the vagina;
- lack of appetite, apathy;
- redness of the nipples and the presence of discharge from them;
- quick weight gain animals.
Often a clear sign of pregnancy pigs is the lack of re-hunt. Such animals show no anxiety in the presence of the boar.
It is possible to determine the sow gestation by simple methods in the household. First, scratching the belly lying on the side of the pig, feel the uterus at the level of the last nipples. The presence of fetuses may be noticed at a late term of pregnancy.
Secondly, if you stroke the animal on the back in the direction from the shoulder blades to the sacrum, then the pregnant female will stand exactly, and the unfertilized individual will bend. For more details, see the article "How can you tell if a pregnant pig is or not?"
Clinical methods for determining pregnancy sows
In conditions of industrial pig breeding, clinical methods are used to determine pregnancy. This allows a high degree of accuracy to control the condition of the sow. A sample of Burkina involves urinalysis using chemical reactions. Two weeks after mating, it is collected, filtered, and 3% hydrogen peroxide, a few drops of hydrochloric acid, and an aqueous solution of phenylhydrazyl hydrochloride are added. When a solution is obtained in a dark red color, it means sucking, and yellow urine - its absence.
A serological test consists of a blood test taken from the ear of a pig. This procedure is carried out 3 weeks after mating and detects the hormones of pregnancy accurately enough, but requires temporary, material costs.
The method of hormonal provocation is the introduction of a mixture of androgens and estrogens to the animal. A pregnant sow, unlike a single individual, remains calm and does not respond to changes in hormonal levels. On large pig farms often use an ultrasound scanner, a biopsy method.
You can listen to the fetal heartbeat on the 26th day after conception using the Doppler ultrasound device. This confirms by 90% that the pig is carrying piglets. With the help of such a device it is possible to control the course of pregnancy at each stage.
In more detail in the article "How can I find out whether the pig is pregnant or not?"
How many pigs bear offspring
A healthy sow can produce offspring twice a year. How long the pig lasts for pregnancy, consider below.
Unlike other parcipeds, the pregnant pig breeds faster. In addition, there may be up to 14 piglets in one brood. Depending on the number of fetuses inside the uterus, a pregnant pig walks before giving birth at different times. If many piglets are expected, the litter often occurs at 102-104 days after fertilization. In the opposite case, pregnancy may last for 130 days or more.
In most cases, the pig is young 110-118 days. The duration of pregnancy depends on the age of the animal, time of year, the number of previous births, conditions of detention. If the pigs are preparing for sale, then the pig breeders try to inseminate sows so that the birth will fall in February. On the other hand, it gives enough time for the pig to recuperate in the spring-summer period.
A sow pregnancy ends with farrowing, which lasts about 4-5 hours. Only in rare cases, this process can take up to 10 hours. It is important that at each term the pig is in good physical condition. This is a guarantee that the piglets will be healthy.
Thus, the duration of gestation in pigs depends on the above factors. An average of its duration can be considered 114 days.
Pig Pregnancy Calendar
Individual development of the mumps (ontogenesis) consists of the embryonic (uterine) and postembryonic stages. Inside the body of a sow, the fruit continuously grows and changes, gradually acquiring the features of an adult individual in accordance with the orientation of the genotype.
The growth program of each fetus pig laid genetic code. Inheritance of the main species characters follows an individual path.
Embryonic development consists of the germinal, prefetal, and fetal phases.
Germinal phase Lasts from the time of fertilization of the egg to 18 days of pregnancy. And it makes up 20% of the entire uterine development. After the formation of a zygote, it begins to divide rapidly. On the 4th day a morula is formed inside it. Inside which is already visible the embryo under the microscope. He begins to eat at the expense of the uterus. On day 6 after conception, the transparent shell of the embryo is broken. It begins to grow rapidly, increasing in size. From the 14th day the fetus gets fat. At this time, three germ layers appear: the ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm. It is from them that all the organs of the animal and the skeleton are formed.
Prefetal stage Lasts from 18 to 32 days of fetal development. Brain, liver, four-chamber heart, nerves, lungs, vessels are observed already on the 20th day after conception. During this period all organs and systems are laid, the placenta begins to function actively.
Fetal stage Lasts from 32 days until the moment of birth of a pig. On the 51st day after conception, the mass of the embryo increases 33 times, and on the 72nd day - 150 times. It is embryogenesis that determines the health and immunity of the fruit, which determines their resistance to adverse environmental conditions.
Preparing animals for farrowing
If the pregnancy of the pig is confirmed, then you need to pay more attention to it throughout the time. About how much the pregnant female walks before the birth of offspring, we said above. To piglets were born strong and healthy, you should reconsider the diet of sows. It is not recommended to underfeed or overfeed pigs. The amount of feed enriched with protein components should be increased.
There are certain norms of weight gain by sows during pregnancy. The important point is how much the pig weighs compared to when she had not yet had time to get pregnant.
For an adult animal, an increase in weight up to 45-50 kg is considered the norm during the entire period of pregnancy in pigs. Particular attention should be paid to the sow ration at the last of four months of gestation, since during this period the animals gain maximum weight.
From the diet should be rude feed, giving preference to proteins and carbohydrates that are well absorbed. In addition, it is desirable to stimulate the motor activity of pigs, providing them walking.
For the prevention of postpartum complications it is recommended to vaccinate sows from worms. In this, the actions of the farmer are the same as those usually done upon completion of the pregnancy in a cow.
How long is the farrow
By calculating how long the pigs are pregnant, you can control the entire process of carrying offspring. And the main thing - to be close at the time of farrowing, to secure the sow and, if necessary, help the pig. This will help avoid losses among born young.
On average, the duration of labor is about two hours, and the young are born with an interval of 14-18 minutes. How long the whole process can last determines the age of the sow and the number of piglets in the litter. Young healthy females breed faster.
But no matter how long it takes to litter, it is important to ensure that babies have access to mother's colostrum in the near future. This determines the strong immunity of the young pigs for the rest of their lives. On the other hand, if there are too many piglets, they will not have enough mother's nipples or milk. As a result, the weakest individuals may die.
How to cope with the problem, tell the article "On feeding suckling piglets."
The most important help for piglets after birth
Stillborn babies most often appear at the end of farrowing due to asphyxiation. It is important to clearly understand what to do in such cases.
In case of such signs, the piglet’s mouth should be thoroughly wiped from the mucus and taken with both hands. Put your head on one hand and your torso on the other. His need to keep his feet up, bending in half and shaking.
When there are signs of breathing in small pigs, they need to be taken by the back legs with their head down. After that, the piglet should clap his hand on the back until he coughs. Then it should be placed in a warm place.
Often the young leave in fetal membranes. They need to be immediately torn and removed. After this, the babies should be carefully wiped with a dry, soft cloth and returned to the mother.
Make no mistake with the date of delivery
In different pig breeds, the term for carrying cubs is different. How long the pigs are pregnant can only be assumed in advance.
For example, in a Vietnamese female, gestation usually lasts 114 days, and by how many days the gestation of a large white pig is stretched, it is difficult to say for sure. The sow of this breed can be farmed both after 114 days, and after 126 days. In 90% of cases, this occurs on the 118th day after fertilization.
To find out the approximate date of farrowing and to be fully prepared for this, pig farmers need to count 114 days from the date of fertilization. For ease of memorization, you can take 3 months 3 weeks and 3 days as a reference point.
Using the above information about the timing of fetal development, you can easily create a personal calendar of pregnancy of the pig. And taking advantage of the article "The calendar of pig farms table and signs of close birth," you can never go wrong with the date of birth.
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