Having studied the process of the appearance of offspring in a sow, you will be able to observe the animals throughout the entire period of pregnancy without any fear and to render the necessary assistance, seeing violations. Immerse yourself in the situation from the beginning to the very end, and we will help you to figure out what to do when delaying the farrowing, complications during the labor process, the difficult rehabilitation period. Acquainted with the material, you can safely accept replenishment in a herd of pigs, without fear for the health of the pigs.
The first and subsequent farrowing: similarities and differences
Farrow pigs first occurs at the age of about a year. However, the first signs of puberty can be seen when the animals reach 6 months. To give birth to a pig, it passed without complications, its weight should exceed 100 kg, but not to go beyond 130 kg. In addition, for playback choose females who have more than 12 nipples.
The first birth of pigs are heavy, their body is experiencing severe stress, which is why the signs of approaching farrowing they manifest most clearly. A female primipara can be farrowed with a delay - this is normal if the number of extra days does not exceed a week. On the other hand, individuals that have already given birth may, on the contrary, not deliver the fetus for a period of about 10 days.
For experienced sows, childbirth takes place in 4 hours, but in motherbirds, the farrowing can take 10 or more hours. Another point worth noting is the number of pigs born. Young pigs produce only 6-8 babies, but with age their number reaches 10-12 newborns.
Preparing the machine for the day "X"
In order for farrowing pigs at home to go without complications, it is necessary to carefully prepare the delivery room. According to the rules of pig breeding, a scornful approach is not allowed here. The owner's bad faith can lead to the death of animals. Therefore, the first thing to do is to determine a warm, dry place for women in labor.
All foreign objects are removed from the room, the walls are covered with lime, and then thoroughly aired from accumulated toxins. After this, the room is disinfected, and the floor is covered with the best quality bedding. You also need to take care of stabilizing the temperature - about 25 degrees. Now the machine is ready for the adoption of the sow.
If the farrowing takes place in winter, the room is protected from possible drafts, but in the summer time it will be necessary to spray the mumps with water at room temperature so that the animal does not get dehydrated.
The maternity ward is equipped with baskets for sorting babies, as some of them are born less active, and such piglets require special care. Do not forget to stock up on water and feed, as the diet for sows is special.
Design for postpartum feeding babies
To sows after farrowing, it was easier to feed babies, newborns did not fight for nipples, and it was easier for farmers to clean, the room for keeping pigs was equipped with special equipment. In common people it is called "machine", and you can make it yourself.
To learn how to make a device correctly and about its use, read the article "The machine for farrowing pigs," we will tell only about its specificity. The principle of the device - a long horizontal compartment for sows with side cells for piglets. The bottom of the structure is slotted in order to promptly clean the waste, washing the retractable pan.
The machine restrains the sow during feeding, which gives babies the opportunity to get the required amount of milk. But remember that the compartment for the female should not be too tight, otherwise the animal will experience discomfort, as a result of which large amounts of hormones will start to enter the colostrum.
Complete maternity room
Since pig births can go with complications, you should take care to prepare all the necessary tools in advance. This approach is called “work ahead”, which means to be ready for any development of events. So, to be able to react to the problem in a timely manner, in a farrowing machine, you should have:
- clean cloth;
- medical gloves;
- cutting tool;
- 5% pharmacy iodine;
- spool of thread;
- manganese powder.
In addition, the room must bring dishes to mix. The solution itself is prepared in the process of farrowing and must contain such an amount of potassium permanganate powder that the water will acquire a light purple hue.
It should be remembered that taking birth in a cold room is fraught with serious complications. Therefore, the machine is equipped with 200 watt infrared lamps. To monitor the temperature in the department, it is worth hanging a thermometer on the wall.
Harbingers of the First Fights
Since pigs may give birth sooner or later than the planned date, special attention should be paid to the outward signs of approaching farrowing. When approaching a certain period of time, the sow is constantly monitored. How to determine these dates, we told in the article "Calendar of farrowing pigs with a table and signs of close genera."
Externally, to understand that the farrow is approaching, it is possible by an increased udder and a reddened sexual loop. In addition, the obvious signs of childbirth - sagging belly, sagging spine, the appearance of colostrum. These physiological prerequisites for the appearance of babies will best show you that the beginning is near.
From a behavioral point of view, if a pig becomes nervous, this also indicates an approaching farrowing. The animal begins to "loom" around the room, lies down and gets up, then, lies down again. But as soon as the contractions begin, she sinks into a corner and calms down - this is the beginning of labor.
The number of pigs for one farrow, and how to affect this figure
Without the use of ultrasound it will not be possible to find out how many pigs a pig can give birth to in one pregnancy. But there are factors that can increase future offspring. From them it should be noted:
- the number of pregnancies;
- maintenance and nutrition;
- level of health;
- previous farrowing rates.
Since the pig is pig from 10 months, the first few times the number of pigs will not be too large. But with age, the sows' body will get stronger, and they will be able to bear more offspring if they are provided with good conditions for housing and feeding.
The birth of pigs on the farm and their number depends on the living conditions of sows. Particular attention is paid to the quality of feed, because they contain components that affect the endurance and multiplicity of the female.
Female preparation: necessary care
In order for the sow to give birth to healthy offspring, one should take proper care of it before the beginning of farrowing. Make sure that the pig gets all the necessary substances from food: phosphorus, calcium, chlorine, sodium. Naturally, the products given to her should be fresh and of high quality.
Pregnancy washes sodium out of the body of sows, and salt is necessary for its replacement. Therefore, the food given to pigs should be slightly salted. In some farms, before the pig was farrowed, it was given helmintherapy, but this method of disinfection is not credible, and we do not recommend our readers to use it.
If a pig does not give birth for the first time, then it is recommended to walk it forcibly, as the animals themselves move reluctantly, which leads to obesity. Immediately before farrowing, the amount of food is reduced, as the stuffed intestine puts pressure on the uterus, which can lead to premature birth.
Temporary indicators of the birth of babies
So that you do not fear the beginning of farrowing, we will tell you how a pig gives birth, and what is the norm in this process, and what a deviation from the rules. The onset of contractions indicates that the babies will appear soon. The first attempts at sows are weak, and the interval between them is large. Further, the gap between contractions is reduced, and the pigs begin to show.
The process of delivery takes from 2 to 4 hours, but it can take a half day.
Piglets emerge from two fallopian tubes at different intervals. The gap between the first and second babies is the shortest - about 5 minutes. Then the exit time can grow to half an hour.
This is due to the fact that sows decrease the attempts.
But weak contractions can cause stopping childbirth, which is a bad sign. If you do not know how to help the sow in this situation, then it is better to invite you to the vet process, especially if this is the first farrow in your practice. Intramuscular oxytocin usually helps.
Maternity process: instructions for action
Of course, childbirth and reproduction are natural processes, but they are strictly controlled in animal husbandry. After the pigs have contractions, the fetus will not appear immediately. How long it will take to do this depends on the female's farrowing count. But as soon as the baby is born, he needs to cut the umbilical cord, tie it with a thread and process it with iodine.
The fact that the babies appear at intervals gives you the opportunity to practice every little pig. It must be cleaned of mucus, wiped dry with a clean cloth and brought to the mother's nipple, for the first portion of colostrum. As soon as he gets drunk, move him under the lamp, put it in the basket. Do not forget to treat with potassium permanganate the birth canal before the next baby starts to go out.
When pigs are born pigs, they say that this is only part of the work of the farmer, and this is true. Before the birth is complete, every afterbirth must leave the sow. Due to the physiological characteristics of the pig, it consists of 2 parts. After that, you can wash the female and give her a rest.
Assistance in the generic process: attenuation of contractions or lack thereof
Sometimes births in sows pass with complications. We will understand how to act in such situations. For example, if a pig cannot give birth while the fights continue or are almost quieter, you should immediately pull out the fruit, otherwise the pig will suffocate.
You need to be prepared for such a situation, so before you start a farrowing, shortly brush your nails. And if suddenly a pig is not born, start acting. Wash your hands up to the shoulder, put on medical gloves and grease with petroleum jelly. Now gently insert the hand into the uterus, until you reach the fetus.
Grasp the limbs and begin to slowly pull it down until it is completely out. The mumps that was born this way, quickly clear the discharge, make sure that it breathes, and bring it to the nipple. Feeding newborns with colostrum stimulates contractions. If this does not help stabilize the farrow, call a doctor. Well, if he will be warned in advance about the beginning of childbirth and will be ready.
It is possible to independently make an injection into the spasmotirate muscle (dosage 5 ml). You can replace it with propylene glycol (10 ml). After about half an hour, oxytocin is injected (30 ml per sow weighing up to 200 kg).
Complications of appetite loss
When sow litters are without complications, her appetite appears after 10 hours, and the need for water remains during childbirth. But in some cases, the animal refuses to eat, and this can be a symptom of a viral infection. Her life may depend on how much the pig does not eat, so you should quickly determine the cause and return her appetite.
There are 4 reasons for reluctance in pigs: lack of vitamins, poor feeding and maintenance, illness. In the first 3 cases, you can help the animal with good care, changing the diet and improving conditions. When the cause of lack of appetite is a virus, then you should begin treatment.
If you are unable to contact a veterinarian and consult with him, you can use drugs with such names as Fosprenil, Bicillin-3 and Baytril. These are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but they have detrimental effects: they penetrate pigments into the body through colostrum and cause diarrhea. In the future, their use can cause congestion in development.
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