High-quality, healthy offspring in domestic and large farms can be obtained by applying artificial insemination of pigs. This technique has several advantages over traditional methods of fertilization of pigs, so it has become very popular in pig farming. With its help you can cover a lot of sows in a short time. On the other hand, you can improve the breed of piglets. To do this, apply sperm breeding boars. The simplicity of technology is another advantage.
Features and requirements for artificial insemination
The sperm of one purebred knur helps to inseminate up to 500 sows in one year. It often improves the breed characteristics of animals. Artificial insemination of pigs qualitatively improves the productivity of pig and its offspring.
The process itself is quite simple in its essence. A special device is inserted into the pig's vagina for injecting ejaculate.
In this case, the seminal fluid must comply with the following parameters:
- one dose of sperm is 250-500 ml;
- sperm activity not less than 7 on a 10-point scale;
- concentration in 1 ml - from 0.1 to 1 billion sperm;
- immature germ cells can be no more than 10%, and pathological units - a maximum of 20%.
Thus, it is only necessary to take and store genetic material under certain conditions. Modern technologies allow you to keep it frozen for a long time, moving over long distances.
The insemination procedure itself is carried out during the period when the pig is in the hunt. The time of ovulation is carefully calculated. Before the semen is introduced, the female needs to be prepared in a certain way.
The popularity and benefits of artificial insemination
Artificial insemination of sows is a common method used to improve the economic performance of large pig farms and small farms. This technology allows to reduce the number of breeding boars, the sperm of which is used to produce high-quality offspring in pig breeding.
She allows to cross males with females of different weight without risk of harm to them. As a result of insemination of sows in this way, the best breeds with desirable characteristics for pig producers can be obtained. In addition, the use of artificial insemination is a guarantee against infectious diseases that can be sexually transmitted.
With artificial insemination, breeders plan to produce healthy offspring by exact dates. This allows you to plan in advance the work of farmers, providing optimal conditions and diet for pork herd.
Characteristic signs of ovulation pigs
For effective fertilization of female pigs, it is necessary to choose the most appropriate time. This means that the sow must be in the process of "sex hunting." This condition can be determined by mucous secretions from her vulva, nipple swelling, redness of the external genital organs.
In addition, the behavioral signs of such a condition is a decrease in appetite, anxiety, and screaming. In the presence of boars, females remain calm and still. Sexual arousal lasts about 3-5 days, and the "hunt" from 36 to 120 hours. During this period, the farmer should conduct a routine inspection of the pigs twice a day. More details about this can be found in the article “How many days pigs walk”.
If, with pressure on the back part of the sow's ridge, it arches the back, then it shows its readiness for mating, in this situation for artificial insemination. The duration of ovulation in pigs is approximately 15 hours. At the end of the "hunt" they have an appetite restored, calm behavior, there is a certain inhibition. In addition, the pigs begin to react negatively to the presence of boars.
For fertilization best fit adult strong individuals. Despite the fact that these animals reach sexual maturity at the age of 5-6 months, in order to obtain high-quality healthy offspring it is better to inseminate animals at least 9 months old.
Features of the inseminator
The responsibilities of the pig farm machinery, which deals with the insemination of livestock, include ensuring the direct fertilization process of sows. In addition, his job is to check the quality of seed, care for the pigs immediately after their birth. Thus, the inseminator controls the birth rate of young pigs.
The organization of its activities directly determines the efficiency of reproduction of pork livestock. Therefore, such work should strictly comply with all standards and requirements. Disinfection, preparation of the working space, all consumables, preparation of special solutions are important points of this specialist’s activity.
Preparing for the collection of seed, freezing and thawing of sperm, its storage are important tasks of the inseminating technician. For the proper organization of work, the employee must have a set of necessary tools, dressings, which are stored in one place. Having such a “suitcase” in the arsenal, the inseminator can provide for the fertilization process of a sow at any suitable time.
How to prepare a sow for artificial insemination
Before the procedure of fertilization, pigs need to be stimulated in a certain way. This will help make wild boars active in relation to mating. Each of these animals should be placed in front of several females, in the adjacent cages.
In a small farm in the process of insemination, it is recommended to massage the sows with pressure in the area of the sexual loop, upward movements in the groin area. On the sides should be made progressive movement from front to back, squeezing them. It mimics the movements of boars during sexual intercourse under natural conditions.
For successful fertilization in an artificial way it is important to determine the readiness for this sow. The "rider test" will help.
It is carried out simply. To do this, sit back on the back of the sow on top. The readiness of the pig for insemination will show its complete calm.
The above actions increase the likelihood of quality fertilization and successful farrowing.
Artificial insemination methods
The most common methods of insemination is fertilization with diluted sperm and fractional method, which consists of two stages.
More preferred for small households is to use diluted sperm. Its amount when administered inside the uterus of a pig is calculated by weight in the ratio of 1 ml per 1 kg. In this case, the sperm should have a concentration of not less than 4 units, and its volume should be no more than 150 ml.
Insemination in this way is performed using a special device consisting of a glass or plastic tank. It is closed with a tight stopper, with an adapter into which two rubber tubes are sealed. The catheter for seminal fluid attaches to one of them, and the syringe to the second. The catheter is gently inserted into the vagina, and the filled plastic bottle rises. In the case of a glass tank, use a syringe.
For fractional insemination, diluted seminal fluid is first introduced. To prepare the mixture in 1 liter of distilled water dissolve 30 g of glucose and 4.5 g of sodium chloride. The dose of semen must be coordinated with the veterinarian. At the second stage, a solution is introduced, which creates a nutrient medium for spermatozoa. For this method, an instrument consisting of a catheter, a container with tubes, clamps for closing the tubes, an air filter is used. The specialist also uses tubes with seed and diluent. With this method, the sperm is alternately injected, and then the diluent.
How to get boar sperm in the household
If it is impossible to acquire quality seed on specialized breeding farms, you should rely on your own strength. Taking semen from boars is quite possible to organize in a small farm. These problems can be solved by applying the layout of the female or manual methods.
It is important to use disposable instruments that will reduce the risk of infection. The resulting genetic material is best placed inside special tanks. It is recommended to keep the seminal fluid for no more than two days, and before use it should be warmed up to 37 degrees Celsius in a “water bath”.
Before taking seed from boars, they need to be prepared in a certain way. Mature boars are given the opportunity to conceive offspring several times in a natural way. After that, begin to use a special doll and specific flavors. After some time, the animals sit on an artificial sow.
The technology of semen intake is quite simple. At first, an effigy with a wet vagina needs to be fixed at the level of the male's eyes. Inside this "toy" it is recommended to install a special heater that provides a constant temperature. Artificial hole should be closed with a thin film, which is fixed with a rubber ring. The boar's genital needs to be inserted into the hole, clasp it with your hand and squeeze the end. Up to 500 milliliters of seminal fluid can be obtained at one time.
How to prepare for artificial insemination
To ensure high-quality fertilization, sows need to be well fed. The diet should include a maximum of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats, carbohydrates. Breeding pigs in modern ways involves strict adherence to the rules of hygiene. Especially when pigs are inseminated at home.
Throughout the process, sterile gloves and clean instruments should be used. You should also carefully clean the stall with a hot detergent solution.
The external genitals of sows are most vulnerable to infectious diseases. Before insemination, they should be thoroughly wiped with a swab moistened with furatsilin solution and dried with a clean towel.
It is recommended to stroke the female on the sides, but not to touch the back. Thanks to such procedures, the pig will be ready for this procedure in a short time. Her willingness will show calmness, suppleness, lack of aggressive behavior.
Artificial insemination technology for sows
Artificial insemination of pigs is not a big deal. Such work does not require any special knowledge or skills. First, the package with sperm must be heated in a water bath to a temperature not higher than 38 degrees Celsius, since a stronger heating can reduce the activity of spermatozoa or even kill them.
Sow is fixed in a special machine or with the help of an assistant. The external genitals of the pig are thoroughly cleaned and wiped dry.
Then you should use a plastic catheter for sows, which is inserted into the vagina, first in a straight line, and then at a 45 degree angle from above. The edges of this tube are lubricated with a special gel. After its complete introduction, a 150 ml capacity is added to the free end with sperm, from which sperm is gradually squeezed out.
During this procedure, it is important to stroke the pig sacrum and sides. After the introduction of the entire amount of genetic material is necessary for 2-3 minutes, the catheter should be left inside, and then removed, turning clockwise. This must be done very carefully.
Before the procedure and after its completion, it is important to ensure complete rest and a full diet for the animal. In addition, in the pigsty you need to maintain cleanliness, comfortable temperature conditions without drafts and humidity.
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