Pig farms and complexes


Even in the farmstead, you can build a small pig-breeding complex, which will contain 50 or more pigs. With proper organization, year-round feeding of piglets for meat can be a profitable family business. Depending on the direction of the pig industry, the farm will generate 25-30% of the income from the invested funds annually, providing your family members with stable work, high-quality pork and high profits.

Profitable business for private traders

More than 80% of rural residents are engaged in amateur pig breeding, growing from 1 to 3 piglets to produce high-quality meat, which is used for personal consumption. This is convenient at home, but does not cover the cost of purchasing feed and caring for pigs.

In order to compensate for the costs of growing pigs, it is necessary to increase the number of pigs, some of which will be sold on the market or in the wholesale and retail network, bringing in the owner “live” money.

Already with the maintenance of 10 or more pigs, such a mini pig farm will become profitable, and the equipment of the pigsty for 50 heads will turn your family farm into a full-fledged manufacturing enterprise.

Today we will tell how to build a mini farm for pigs, taking into account the requirements, as well as properly organize its productive work.

Pre-calculate possible costs

If you decide to professionally engage in pig breeding, then you need to start with drawing up a business plan. It should be thoroughly taken into account all possible financial costs required for breeding pigs.

Estimated costs for building a pig farm, designed for the maintenance of 50 pigs:

  • 25,000 rubles for documentation;
  • the construction of a pigsty 380 thousand rubles;
  • purchase of the necessary equipment 100 thousand rubles;
  • building a barn for grain 300 thousand rubles;
  • equipment storage for straw and hay 150 thousand rubles;
  • equipment shed 45 thousand rubles;
  • garage 80 thousand rubles;
  • purchase of 50 pigs (at an average price of 3.5 thousand rubles per head) - 175 thousand rubles;
  • purchase of feed (800 kg per individual) - 300 thousand rubles;
  • rent of a place on the market - 15-20 thousand rubles;
  • salary to the pork distributor - 15-20 thousand rubles;
  • payment of utilities (for 12 months) - 300 thousand rubles.

Total expenses will amount to about 1,895 thousand rubles.

Costs may vary considerably depending on the region, as well as in connection with the use of existing premises and equipment assembled by yourself.

Depending on what type of piglets you plan to use on the pig farm, you will need to purchase special equipment, as well as tools used to feed the pigs and clean up the premises.

At the initial stage, piglets for fattening, you also have to purchase, so carefully review all the offers that exist on the market and select the animals of the breed that best suits your price and performance characteristics.

The right choice of site and size of the pig farm

The construction of a pig farm begins with the selection of a flat site, which should be located at a distance of at least 15 m from the premises. This will help protect you and your loved ones from unpleasant odors emanating from the waste products of pigs.

Livestock standards require that in the pigsty for each fattening pig had at least 2.5 square meters. m working area.

To save money and increase profitability, it is necessary to foresee the possibility of obtaining piglets from own sows, each of which requires at least 4.5-5 square meters. m square. For a boar-manufacturer, it is enough to build a 3.5 square pen. m

Provision should be made for the presence in the pigsty of utility rooms, vestibules and walkways between the compartments, through which trolleys with feed and waste products of pigs should pass freely.

The most practical for 50 animals is construction of a pigsty with an area of ​​250 square meters. m, which must be equipped in accordance with the requirements of sanitary and hygienic standards. Read more in the article "Construction of pigs".

Equipping the pigsty with the necessary equipment

Be sure to consider in the business plan the need to purchase equipment for pig farms, part of which can be done by hand.

You can install industrial machinery on the farm, which will simplify the process of fattening and cleaning the room, or divide the pigsty into several pens using wood, steel reinforcement or brickwork elements.

Hand-made machine tools and pens for pigs are only externally different from industrial ones in performance, but they are much cheaper.

It is best to provide installation in the pigsty automated feeding or harvesting lines. This will relieve you from heavy manual labor, but it is not always advisable from an economic point of view.

At the initial stage, troughs and troughs for a farm can be made with hand-made materials from scrap materials, and hired workers can be used to feed pigs and clean the premises.

Breed selection and veterinary support

Purchase of pigs should be done only after you have completed the construction of the pigsty with your own hands or with the help of specialists, and also have acquired feed and the necessary equipment for the pig farm.

It is best to breed pigs of the same breed. Such animals mate well and produce fertile offspring, and every piglet has strong immunity, excellent appetite and quickly gains weight.

Buy piglets in the breeding farm, in which you will be offered to purchase pigs of a particular breed. Pigs will already have initial vaccinations and good resistance to a variety of infections.

Future boars should be purchased separately from females. This will eliminate the possibility of closely interbreeding pigs and the birth of weakened offspring.

Use the services of a veterinarian who will vaccinate your swine herd in a timely manner and castrate feed hogs.

In the muscles of the mature boar, there is an active accumulation of the unpleasant smell of highly toxic skatole, which makes the meat practically unsuitable for human consumption.

Read more in the article "About castration of pigs."

Comply with hygiene standards

Compliance with veterinary regulations is an important element in the process of fattening and breeding pigs. For the delivery of whole or already finished carcasses to the distribution network, you will need documents confirming the safety of these products.

If during the fattening of piglets for yourself, you can, at your own risk and risk, abandon vaccination, then you must vaccinate pigs on a livestock farm.

Constantly monitor the cleanliness of the room, which contains pigs, and take out the waste outside the pigsty.

In feeding troughs and pens for pigs should not accumulate remnants of feed. They will attract insects, wild pigeons and small rodents, which are carriers of dangerous infectious diseases.

It is very important to prevent fecal matter from entering the feeders and drinkers. In pig waste, eggs and larvae of helminths can be found, and animals can be infected by eating contaminated feed.

Read more in the article "Rules and regulations for the maintenance of pigs."

Follow the diet and diet

To feed pigs for meat is not very difficult. It is enough to observe the dietary regime of pigs, the recommended norms of feeding and make up a diet of high-calorie foods.

It is best to start fattening pigs with ready-made feed purchased in the trading network, or in their own economy to establish the production of combined feed mixtures, enriched with vitamins and trace elements.

Pigs are advised to give dry combination feeds or to cook porridges steamed from pre-ground cereal mixtures.

When fattening piglets, you can use any raw vegetables and root vegetables, as well as boiled potatoes, which contributes to the rapid accumulation of fat, improves the taste characteristics of pork. Excellent weight gain pig gives the use of premixes, dietary supplements, as well as yeast feed.

Acquire grain and combined feed in bulk at harvest time when prices are the lowest. This will allow you to save money and increase the profitability of the farm.

Special care for suckling piglets

For pregnant sows and babies require special care. In the corners for dairy pigs you need to maintain a temperature of 30-33 degrees Celsius, for which it is best to use a red lamp.

Pigs need to add whole-milk substitute or feed to feed, and also cook semi-liquid cereals from grains ground to flour. Already at the age of 1-1.5 months, pigs are weaned from the mother and gradually transferred to adult feed.

In the period of rearing piglets (1.5-3 months), you need to be very careful and not to overfeed pigs with boiled potatoes. Due to an excess of carbohydrates, young pigs can become obese, which will affect their health and the speed of subsequent weight gain.

In the pre-slaughter period, boiled potatoes to pigs can be added to feed in unlimited quantities. This will increase the thickness and softness of the fat.

Feeding piglets at first should be carried out at least 7 times a day, and to achieve industrial weight (6-7 months), the number of pigs feeding should be reduced to three per day, following the filling of feeders and drinkers.

Read more in the article "The content of small pigs."

Competent slaughter and sale of pork

Already by 6-7 months of age, the pigs will weigh 100-120 kg (depending on the breed), and they can be sent to slaughter. The output of high-quality pork and fat from each carcass is about 85-95 kg.

Some pig producers prefer to donate pigs to large meat processing plants, getting paid for live weight. This is convenient, but not very profitable, since the wholesale price of pork is much lower than the market price.

It is best to equip in the backyard of the pigsty a special area adapted for the slaughter and cutting of pigs. This process can be carried out on your own, or you can hire a professional pig farmer. He will be responsible for obtaining meat and fat, which is cut according to the standard classification and has a presentable appearance to attract the attention of customers.

At the farm you can arrange a small smokehouse or sausage shop. This will expand the range of products sold and significantly increase its value.

Whole carcasses of slaughtered piglets can be handed over in bulk to supermarkets and small shops, and the dressed ones are well sold in parts, both from the pig farm itself and in the collective farm markets.

Be sure to consider the costs of conducting laboratory research of pork, paying taxes, as well as renting a trading place on the market and the salary of the seller.

As a rule, with a competent approach to business, the profitability of a pig-breeding farm is 20-30%, and you can count on a full return of the investment in construction in 6-8 years.

Put a class if the article was interesting and useful for you.

Write in the comments about the history of your family business of growing pigs.




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