In this article, we will tell you how many pigs a pig can give birth to at a time, and how many polls she has during her life. Without such knowledge, it is impossible to correctly calculate the area of the pigsty, the amount of feed purchased and the necessary equipment for the farm. For professional livestock breeders and amateur breeders, it is important not to miss the moment when it is time to change the breeding female to a younger individual.
Fast-growing and early animals
Newborn piglets weigh about 0.8-1.3 kg, and by the age of six months they can reach a weight of 100 or more kilograms, bringing their owners serious profits.
An important advantage of these animals is their precocity and the ability to bring many pigs over the years.
Already in 5-6 months the young pig is ready for coating and is able to produce offspring for the first time. In large pig farms this opportunity is used to increase the profitability of production.
In small farms, pig health is more benign. Sows are not allowed to be covered by the manufacturer until they reach the age of 7-8 months and the weight gain is 100-120 kg. Such pigs tolerate pregnancy more easily, carry more piglets, and their farrowing passes without complications.
Additional information in the article "Farrow pigs for the first and subsequent times."
Hogs ripen a little longer. From 7-8 months they are ready to perform reproductive functions, but for use in these purposes, manufacturers older than one year will be more suitable. They produce more active sperm that can fertilize pig eggs.
The number of piglets born is primarily dependent on the breed of the pig. Therefore, having the goal of using pigs for obtaining numerous offspring, it is necessary to choose a multiple animal species.
- Bacon breeds - Urzhum (10-13 pigs per one survey), landrace (10-12), Lithuanian (11-12);
- meat-greasy breeds - Breitovskaya (10-14 pigs for one litter), large white English (10-12), Ukrainian large white (10-12), Ukrainian steppe white (10-12),
- grease breeds - Mirgorod (10-11 pigs for farrowing).
Bacon pig breeds Duroc, Berkshire and Hampshire have an average fertility. The female brings from 6 to 10 babies at a time. And the Pietrain breed lags behind at all - their families usually do not exceed 8 individuals, the average number of 5-6 pigs.
In the meat-tallow species there is no such strong division by the number of newborns. On 10-11 babies on average give birth to pigs of the North Caucasian, Kemerovo, Livensky, Murom and Siberian northern breeds. Representatives of the Ukrainian steppe ryabya bring a little less - from 9 to 10 cubs. The record for a large white breed of pigs is the birth of 32 piglets.
Among the most prolific pigs, it is worth noting the Vietnamese bastard breed. Their females are able to produce offspring of 10-20 heads, an indicator of 18 pigs is considered average. However, in the first birth, they usually bring no more than 5 cubs.
Among large pigs record holders are noted. For example, in a village near Krasnoyarsk, a female of the Siberian breed gave birth to 22 pigs. She was already 4 years old and the farrowing was not the first.
So, we note another feature in pigs - the number of piglets born is dependent on the pregnancy and farrowing on the account. For the first time, fewer piglets usually appear on the light, the next time more.
Until now, the world record, which was set by a pig of Chinese Taihu, will not surpass. She gave birth to 42 cubs, and they all survived. And just for her reproductive life, she brought 216 pigs.
High level of procreation
The average length of gestation in a sow is about 114-118 days, although it may take a little faster or longer. It directly depends on the breed of pigs, as well as the conditions of their housing and feeding.
When the period of farrowing comes, the pig brings from 8 to 16 piglets at a time. But the optimal amount for peasant farming is considered to be receiving 11-13 babies from the mumps.
In the conditions of industrial production and in breeding farms, where careful selection of producers is carried out, the number of young stock in the farrowing can reach 15-16. Such sows belong to the class "Elite Record", and their offspring are mainly used to repair the main herd.
When sparing mode of reproduction, each sow pigs no more than twice a year. During this period, she brings to the farmer 24-26 piglets, which she feeds on milk for 1.5-2 months.
On large pig farms to maximize the use of animals, the average fertility rate per sow is 2.4 times per year.
Do not rush to cover young
Already in 5-6 months, the majority of pigs begin to show interest in the opposite sex and they show a hunt. But if at this time the pig is covered with boar, it can remain idle, or bring a small amount of young stock in the farrowing. Some of the piglets are born dead, while others are poor in health and grow slowly.
In a young sow, not yet fully formed eggs are produced, and her body has not gained enough strength to bear the offspring.
It is best for use as sows are fully formed animals that have reached the age of 7-8 months, which weigh 100-120 kg, have a moderate layer of fat and 10-12 developed nipples.
What determines the number of newborns
For mating, it is necessary to keep the sow and boar-producer in a common pen for 1-2 days. No assistance to cover the animals do not need. Some farmers cover sows in series with several boars. It is believed that with this approach, the probability of fertilization of all eggs produced by the pig increases significantly. So, the number of born pigs will be more.
This makes sense, but much more the number of babies being born depends on how many eggs the pig's body has developed. And this is directly related to the quality nutrition of the female, which we describe in the article "All the most important about sows".
It is precisely known that with good nutrition the body of the pig produces more than 20 eggs capable of fertilization.
The onset of pregnancy in the pig
Visually determine whether the pig has suffered is impossible. This can be understood only after 18-24 days, when the next hunt should begin. If the sow continues to walk, then the process of mating should be repeated, using to cover other boars.
The period of gestation in a pig lasts for four months. In the first 60 days, it is practically no different from other pigs, and after that it begins to rapidly gain weight.
In a pregnant pig, there is a great appetite and growth is activated. She moves a little and prefers to lie more. This contributes to the accumulation of subcutaneous fat. To avoid obesity, at this time it is recommended to feed her no more than once a day.
A few days before the pig's farrowing, it is required to reduce the amount of feed by half. This helps to relieve the pig intestines and avoid complications in the farrowing.
The older, the easier it is to give birth.
In the normal course of pregnancy, the gestation period of the piglets is three months, three weeks and three days (114 days). The manual for amateur and professional pig breeding recommends calculating the possible period of farrowing using a special table that takes into account the date of the first mating. We give it in the article "The calendar of farrowing pigs with a table and signs of close genera."
Due to differences in conditions of detention and feeding, as well as the physiological characteristics of the sow, the duration of her pregnancy can seriously differ from the norm, ranging from 101 to 126 days. This is not an abnormal phenomenon and should not cause panic in the pig breeder.
In the first-breed pig, the process of farrowing can last more than 6 hours (the cow usually calves for so long) and there are often complications associated with the release of the first piglet. Older sows give birth more easily, completing the farrowing in 4-5 hours.
Features of birth
Pigs have a double-headed structure of the uterus, which makes it possible to carry more young animals, but creates certain problems during farrowing. In childbirth, the piglets come out of each horn, alternating.
Hardest pigs give birth at a young age or the one that is obese. Usually, the first piglet is bigger than the others, and it is with its release that problems may arise. In the future, for the birth of each baby takes from 20 to 25 minutes.
After each pig comes the last. The born pig is covered with remnants of the amniotic sac and mucus, from which it is necessary to clear the airways. You also need to tie the umbilical cord and bring the newborn to the mother's nipples.
Timely feeding of maternal colostrum gives the pig useful substances, strengthens its immunity, and also stimulates the clan activity of the sow.
For use in farrowing the breeder should have on hand carefully disinfected instruments and heated water, the temperature of which should not exceed 50-60 degrees Celsius.
How many pigs bring piglets
For the farm, it is extremely important not only to control how many pigs are born in pigs, but also what physical condition they are in. If several piglets were born dead or were unable to breathe after farrowing, this may indicate abnormalities in the development of the sow.
Under conditions of a large pig-breeding complex, such an animal is considered unfit for further use for reproductive purposes and is immediately sent for fattening for subsequent slaughter. In small farms, they usually wait for it to feed again, after which they take the final decision on culling.
If you raised a non-purebred sow, then for the first time you should expect the birth from 5 to 10 piglets, and with each next time the number of babies will increase, reaching 10-12 individuals.
In industrial livestock breeding, sows bringing 9 piglets per one farrowing are referred to the second class, 10 - to the first, 11-12 - to the class "Elite".
The most productive animals that bear and produce up to 16 piglets are classified as Elite Record. They are very highly valued and in most peasant farms produce offspring over the years.
Industrial approach to breeding
Now let's talk about how many times pigs can happen during the year to get viable offspring.
The average pregnancy of pigs lasts about 114 days, and as early as 2-6 days after delivery, 70% of sows start hunting, and they are ready for a new mating.
If in the wild, a recently farrowed sow would surely cover a boar, then in conditions of a pig-breeding farm it is absolutely not recommended to do this. With this approach, the body of the pig quickly wears out, and the quality of the young is reduced.
As mentioned above, in large pig farms, in order to increase the profitability of production, adolescent pigs that have reached 6 months are allowed for mating. After the appearance of offspring, sows are re-fertilized, and after the second farrowing, they are sent for fattening and slaughter, replacing them with repair animals.
Take care of animal health
In farms, an excellent result gives two times the production of offspring from one sow per year. In most cases, pigs that have reached the age of 7-8 months are sent to cover. After farrowing, the sow is given the opportunity to fatten the young with their own milk for a month and a half.
Due to the physiological characteristics of the body, pigs give the greatest offspring at the age of 2-5 years, and the maximum milk yield of the sow is observed at 2-4 years. Based on these indicators, it is recommended to use even an elite sow no longer than 5 years. After receiving 6-7 farrowing the animal is best sent to the culling, replacing it with a younger repair pig, capable of for many years to become the basis of your breeding herd.
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