To increase the profitability of the farm is required to regularly update the number of pigs. At the first stage of business organization, the breeder has to acquire young stock in breeding farms, which is quite expensive. With the development of production, all farmers prefer to receive new livestock piglets from their own pigs and boars. This is very profitable, but requires regular replacement of aging sows animals, which are called repair.
Selection by productive characteristics
Amateur and industrial pig breeding require specialization of the pig complex for fattening pigs of one or another animal husbandry direction. For this, piglets of meat, bacon, meat-greasy or greasy breeds are purchased. Each of them has a different yield of meat and fat from the carcass, as well as high-quality and taste characteristics.
Pig beef breeds have practically no layer of subcutaneous fat, called lard. Their fat layers are evenly distributed among the muscle fibers, making the pork tender and quick to prepare.
Fat-beef breeds, including a large black pig, give a large yield of fat and internal fat, but their muscle fibers are not elastic, reducing the taste of pork.
In Russia, the meat-tick direction is the most popular, and the breed of large white pigs is owned by about 80% of all rural farmsteads. She is very fond of breeding because of the thick layer of fat, which is very popular among the people of our country.
You can learn about the advantages and disadvantages of various breeds by reading the article “How profitable to keep pigs”.
Having your own sows is beneficial
When pigs are raised at home, fattening piglets are slaughtered at the age of 6 to 8 months, which directly depends on the chosen direction of animal husbandry.
For the profitability of the production of slaughtered animals, it is necessary to immediately replace the piglets, which were weaned from the udder sows. With an average price of 3.5-5 thousand rubles per head, such an update of the herd of pigs becomes very expensive and not profitable, provided that they are purchased on the side.
It is much more practical to establish the breeding of pigs at home, the case of own boars and pigs with the best reproductive properties.
For a small pig farm designed for keeping 50 heads, it is enough to have 4-5 sows, which will be bred twice a year, bringing 10-14 piglets.
To cover the herd, you need to have 1-2 healthy producer boars that can breed pigs.
However, due to age and the influence of other factors, boars and sows lose their reproductive properties. They are injured and sick, which inevitably affects reproductive functions. This makes the maintenance of such pigs inexpedient, requiring their culling and replacement by other animals.
Frequency of change of producers
The term "rearing youngsters" means a certain number of piglets that are raised specifically for the performance of reproductive functions and reproduction of pigs.
The main purpose of raising such animals is to get strong and healthy pigs, which quickly reach reproductive age and produce a large number of healthy offspring, fully meeting the production characteristics of the breed.
A productive pregnant pig can each time produce more offspring, but its health condition is gradually deteriorating, which directly affects offspring. She may show diseases of the genital organs, mastitis, produce an insufficient amount of milk. Due to age-related obesity, the female loses its reproductive abilities, rarely comes into the hunt, and its further content becomes unprofitable.
When breeding pigs at home, it is advisable to replace sows after several farrows.
To do this, an assessment of young animals obtained from the most productive sows. There is a selection of piglets that meet the characteristics of the breed, their fattening until puberty, with the subsequent culling of individual animals with disadvantages.
Rules for repairing the main herd
Depending on the direction of work of a large pig farm or rural pig breeders, the annual repair or replacement of the main herd should be from 30 to 45% of animals. In other words, when keeping 10 sows, about 3-4 young pigs need to be introduced into the main herd each year instead of those sent for culling.
With this approach, you get the opportunity to spend expensive feed on really productive sows. At each litter, get the maximum number of babies. Feeding piglets will be strong and healthy, have a good appetite and quickly gain weight before slaughter age.
Remember that for rearing pigs, it is desirable to select from breeding sows that demonstrate the maximum genetic purity of the breed. Outbred piglets, even if they are distinguished by large size and excellent health, are not suitable for such breeding, as they can produce non-viable offspring, or even remain single.
Classification of young stock
The technology of selection of young stock for repair purposes has its own characteristics associated with the need for constant monitoring of the health of pigs, their appetite and the rate of gaining muscle mass.
The initial assessment of the maintenance of young stock is carried out on the achievement of two months of age by the piglets. It should pay attention to the multiplicity of sows. Depending on the number of viable offspring in the farrowing repair pigs assign the following definitions:
- up to 9 piglets - without class (not suitable for the role of repair pigs);
- 9 piglets - II class;
- 10 piglets - I class;
- 11–12 piglets - Elite class;
- 13 and more - class Elite Record.
Depending on the needs of the farm, 2-3 hogs and all females are selected from each elite farrowing plant. In the litters of the lower class - 3-4 pigs with the strongest constitution and harmonious physique.
Traditional selection of future producers
In the traditional method of selection, repair pigs, when they reach the age of two months, are transferred to a common supplementary pen for 25-30 heads, in which an excessive amount of feed is obtained, allowing piglets to increase their weight by 500-550 g per day.
In young animals of this age group, the need of a rapidly growing organism for nutrients greatly exceeds the appetite. Therefore, the need to use high-calorie feed, directly affecting the rapid formation of the musculoskeletal structure of the pig.
At 4 months, the next assessment and selection is carried out, as a result of which the weaker and slow-growing piglets are transferred to the fattening shop, and the remaining animals are divided by sex and placed in different pens.
At the age of 4-8 months, the need for nutrients in piglets corresponds to their appetite. Therefore, in order to maintain the rate of growth of muscle mass, excluding obesity, pigs should be provided with free access to an unlimited amount of feed. Although nutrition is required no more than 2-3 times a day.
Choosing healthy and active piglets
It is best for future producers to provide free-run maintenance during this period, enabling them to spend time outdoors during the warm season. At the same time on the walking area is required to equip the canopy from the sun and rain.
The maintenance of pigs in machine tools is considered impractical because with a certain saving of feed there is no positive effect of fresh air. The health of such young animals is deteriorating, and reproductive functions are declining.
After the piglets have a weight of 100 kg, the next assessment and culling of the rearing stock is made. If pigs can be kept in a common pen, then mature boar-producers should be placed in separate machines, allowing them to sow only for the period of mating.
As a rule, no more than 50% of the selected piglets are allowed for the first mating and farrowing. Their them may be subject to culling single pigs with a small number of working nipples, as well as animals that do not show activity in reproduction.
Preparation of repair herd in breeding farms
In breeding farms, the selection of young animals is carried out according to the main productive characteristics, taking into account the peculiarities of pig breeding.
Primary grading or applying a tattoo of a pig in the form of a serial number on the left ear is carried out in 2 months. All data on such an animal, including its original size, weight and speed of gaining muscle mass are recorded in a special journal.
When growing one or two repair pigs at home, it is not necessary to test it, but if you breed the pigs professionally, you cannot do without it.
Due to the presence of a tattoo on the ears, the employees of the pig farm have the opportunity to follow the development of each piglet left to repair the main herd. It is advisable to discard painful and slowly developing animals as early as 4 months, when the next planned assessment of young animals is carried out.
Features and fattening rates
Pigs are transferred to active feeding, gaining 650-700 g of live weight per day, and by 6 months they can weigh 100 kg or more.
At this age, the appetite significantly exceeds the body's nutrient needs, therefore, in order to avoid obesity, the diet of repair pigs should be limited.
Table of approximate feeding rates for young stock:
After the piglets have a weight of 100 kg or more, the specialists of large pig farms assess the thickness of the fat. Only animals with the best characteristics are sent for herd repairs. Thin, weak and painful piglets are sent for culling, and those who have minor developmental disabilities can be sold to individual entrepreneurs wishing to engage in pig farming in their backyard.
Future sows transferred to the group of single pigs, begin to feed intensively 10 days before the intended insemination, giving the opportunity to form a larger number of mature eggs.
For the repair boar, a set of solid mass plays a huge role and allows it to perform reproductive functions better. Therefore, boars need to provide enhanced nutrition with plenty of protein mass.
Required walking or fitness for manufacturers
In large pig farms, the pig-free breeding method is practiced. It allows you to save food, but extremely negatively affects the health of sows, many of which lose their reproductive abilities.
In the presence of even small walking yards, maintenance youngsters are regularly thrown out on them every other day, giving the opportunity to walk for 4-5 hours in the summer, and in the winter at least 2-3 hours. This is especially important for sows that strengthen various muscle groups, including those responsible for reproductive functions.
If this possibility is absent, then representatives of the main herd and repair pigs should be forced to move a lot within the pen or machine. Special simulators for reproductive fitness of sows are perfectly suitable for these purposes.
Special mechanical simulators resemble an ordinary treadmill that makes a pig move at a predetermined speed. Such exercises are conducted daily under the supervision of specialists.
The best hours are considered to be 1 hour at which the repair sow is forced to move at a constant speed of about 2 km / hour.
We cover only fully formed sows.
It is very important to conduct the mating of repair sows on time when they reach puberty, taking into account the recommendations for growing pigs of a particular breed.
It is not allowed to perform reproductive functions of incompletely formed boars, which produce poor quality sperm that cannot fertilize most eggs.
If the boar is too early to cover, the piglet that is not ready for mating may remain idle, and its hunting may be extremely passive. In some cases, it becomes pregnant, resulting in a small number of piglets, most of which are weak or non-viable. It does not make sense to leave such animals for repairs, and it should be immediately transferred to the fattening workshop.
Remember that the best time to cover is for a sow to reach the age of 9-10 months and a weight of 130 kg. If the pig does not have time to accumulate enough fat, it will not be able to provide the babies with the necessary amount of milk. The boar should reach the age of 12 months, as well as the weight of 160 kg or more.
Features of offspring reproduction
Reproductive cycle in sows is 18-24 days. It depends on the breed, the feeding and housing conditions, as well as the physiological characteristics of its body.
If a pig that has reached reproductive age does not show hunting, then it must be artificially stimulated to do so. 3-10 days before the intended coverage, she begins to massage the udder, repeating this procedure once a day for 10 minutes.
Excellent results are obtained by placing a mature boar in the neighboring machine, which emits specific odors and stimulates the onset of hunting. Boar must be older than ten months, otherwise this method will not give the expected result.
Farrowing occurs 114-118 days after mating, making it possible to receive at least two litters per year in a domestic pig farm. In industrial conditions, the reproduction rate of sows can reach 2.4 farrowings per year.
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