All the rooms where pigs live are united by one thing - a comfortable atmosphere is created everywhere. Conditions of detention, along with a complete diet, determine the effectiveness of the pig industry. Care rules may vary slightly for piglets of different breeds. On the other hand, there are general requirements. The premises of the pigsty should be dry, well ventilated, clean, without any signs of mold and mildew. In addition, inside it is impossible to allow drafts and too low temperatures.
Habitats of various pork species
The ancestors of modern pigs were wild boars, which have long lived in different countries and continents among forest and steppe regions. They inhabited the most difficult places, multiplying and spreading to new territories. Unpretentiousness in food, endurance, fertility - the main common features of the found varieties of pigs.
The most interesting are the following types of these animals:
- a large forest pig living in the rainforests of equatorial Africa;
- wild boar, wild boar with long legs and developed fangs, living in the forests of Europe, North and Central America, the mountains of Central Asia, the Far East;
- dwarf pig, which can be found in the Himalayas, Nepal;
- Babirussa, living in Indonesia, on the island of Sulawesi;
- an African warthog inhabiting the savanna of this continent;
- bearded pig from southeast Asia.
Domestic piglets inherited the best features of various species of these animals. These large individuals have perfectly adapted to life with a man and spread to almost all countries and continents. Pigs and pigsties built by the hands of people have become reliable pig houses.
Principles of construction of a pigsty in a private sector
Pigs were domesticated about seven thousand years ago, so people learned how to breed and grow them most efficiently, quickly with minimal physical and material costs. The conditions inhabited by pigs depend on their health, growth, development, reproduction, quality of pork after slaughter.
A certain temperature and humidity must be maintained inside the pigsty. The level of accumulation of muscle mass and fat in animals depends on it. From the early stages of the life of a piglet, comfortable temperature indicators for him make up 18-22 degrees Celsius.
For young stock weighing up to 90 kg, the best conditions will be 14-20 degrees, and for an adult wild boar - 12-16 degrees Celsius. Violation of temperature can lead to increased calorie consumption by piglets, an increase in feed consumption. On the other hand, too high temperatures reduce appetite, provoke weight loss pigs.
A pig never fulfills natural need around a place of rest and eating, so they are classified as clean animals. There should be cleanliness inside the pig pen, so it is important to regularly change litter and provide sufficient living space. How to do this better, you can learn from the article "Construction of pigs" and "How to make and equip a pen for pigs."
The value of daylight and water for the development of piglets
A pig body for full development requires a sufficient amount of light. During the feeding period of a nursing sow, daylight hours are essential. Pigs are happy to enjoy the sun, so it is advisable to equip an open pen near the pigsty. Walking in the fresh air has a positive effect on animal health. Some breeds of pigs without it will not be able to develop normally.
Inside the room where the pig lives, you need to arrange a good natural lighting with windows. In addition, artificial lighting will be useful, since the activity of these animals exceeds daylight hours.
Pigs need a large amount of drinking water. In addition, they are recommended to clean, wash, because in nature, these animals love to swim and swim well. For this, a special space with good water flow will be useful.
Preparing the room for farrowing sows
The pigs are distinguished by high fecundity. Within six months of life, these animals reach sexual maturity. Pregnancy lasts about 114 days and ends with farrowing, as a result of which between 8 and 15 babies are born.
Pregnant sows become very sensitive to temperature changes, therefore, inside the room where the pig lives, stable temperature indicators of 20-23 degrees Celsius should be maintained. If farrowing occurs in the hot summer, then it is recommended to drench the animals with slightly cool water. For the female, it is necessary to prepare a bed of fresh straw and sawdust.
The room in which the pigs take place should be thoroughly cleaned with hot alkaline solutions. It is recommended to treat the walls and floor of the pigsty with quicklime. Indoors, you must create a microclimate without drafts, dampness, cold.
The optimal solution for the safety of young pigs will be the arrangement of the birthing cell. At its edge, you need to install a special partition at a height of 25 cm, limiting the movement of children and sows. The barrier is removed already in the second week of life of the young pigs. For more information about the arrangement of devices can be found in the article "Cages for sows and piglets."
In the room intended for childbirth, it is recommended to transfer the pregnant female one week before farrowing. The animal will get used to the setting and will not be unduly disturbed.
A pregnant pig needs a place for walking, free space, balanced good nutrition.
Arranging a place for piglets separated from the sow
In the place of keeping pregnant sows, it is necessary to equip a special zone where houses for piglets will be installed. To build them, you can use plywood and particleboard.
The area of such a house should be approximately 1 square. m. To heat its internal space on top it is recommended to install an infrared lamp. With its help, approximately one day before indoor farrowing, it is possible to create a comfortable microclimate for piglets.
The floor must be made of wood, and the top must cover it with fresh straw or sawdust. On one of the walls should be equipped with doors that will help close the small pigs, if necessary. The walls of the house should be made strong enough that the sow could not break them.
After the birth of each pig, you need to move to the house in order for it to dry. The temperature at the floor level should not be below 29-30 degrees Celsius. After drying and the first movements of babies during the first 45 minutes should be applied to the nipples of the mother. Important information about the young pigs can be obtained from the article "The content of small pigs."
Preparation of summer pens to accommodate pigs
In the summer, it is recommended to build sheds for the pigs from boards with a separate walking yard, on the territory of which you can build a special pool. Pigs of different ages love to swim. This has a positive effect on their health, growth and development.
For these purposes, tightly knit wooden box, dug into the ground. Other containers may be used. It is important to periodically change the water inside such a pool.
Pigs do not only love to swim, but also scratch their bodies. As scabs on the territory of the walking yard, it is advisable to use ribbed bars with a crossbar from a faceted bar.
It is important to regularly change the litter inside the house of piglets, pig pen for pollution. It is advisable to do this in parts.
At the same time with the dirty litter should be removed manure. It is best to store it in a special trench of meter depth, periodically pouring liquid water from waste of pigs.
Thus, it is possible to create the most favorable conditions for keeping pigs only taking into account the vital needs of the animals themselves.
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