In pig breeding, breeding of pigs did not appear by chance and has a practical meaning. Today we will tell you what kinds of pigs are and how to distinguish them. In addition, you will learn which pigs are bred in our country, and what are their features. Using this information, you will be able to pick up animals for breeding, increase the profit of your own farm and you will not fall for the bait of treacherous sellers who dream of selling obscene goods.
Historical ancestors and curious facts
Thanks to the informational articles on our website, you can learn all about pigs. All the breeds that exist today have a common ancestor - the wild boar. That he is the ancestor of the modern pig. And, despite the large time span, some of its genes are still present.
A curious fact from the history of domestic breeding of animals: pigs - the second, after dogs, animals that appeared in the human economy. It speaks of their high adaptive abilities, livability with people and unpretentiousness in food. Having tamed the pigs and started breeding them, the population received a stock of pork and the ability to feed the people, even on unsuccessful days for hunting.
As for ancestors, scientists agree that modern pigs are descended from European and Asian boars. These species of boars are similar in many respects, but there are some differences in physiology. For example, European pigs differ somewhat elongated snout and disproportionate structure of the body.
Specific divisions in pig breeding: features of choice
In pig farms, piglets are classified according to different characteristics. First, this categorization when getting different types of pork. But growing pigs for meat or bacon is not the only direction in pig farming. A number of farmers are keeping piglets for breeding certain breeds or creating a new class.
When breeding, it is important to take into account the species of pigs and their characteristics in order to understand which pig will be born to the chosen pair. For example, pigs are divided according to the constitution of the body: coarse, dense and tender. Or classified by type of ear placement: lop-eared and with erect ears.
The most common indicator in the classification is the color of the pig: white, red, motley, black. In accordance with this division, the piglets are crossed with other species and get a new breed, with improved performance. In addition, information about the classes helps when choosing pigs.
Build as a selection criterion
All breeds of pigs are classified according to their constitution, affecting the resulting product (meat class). In total, there are 3 categories: coarse, strong and tender. The coarse type of piglets is distinguished by the lowest early ripeness, heavy bones, poorly developed body, flabby muscles and thick skin.
Strong constitution pigs - this is the middle class, most common in Russia. They are distinguished by medium precocity, strong body and muscles, dense, but elastic skin. But to breed piglets with a tender constitution is not the most successful idea, since it is usually a precocious category, which is characterized by over-aging and genetic abnormalities.
The body constitution of pigs is directly related to their productivity. So, the piggy is not peculiar to a rough constitution, and the breeds of the greasy direction are distinguished by a strong structure. If you grow bacon piglets, then you definitely should not choose a coarse or tender category.
Age and weight grades
There are several types of piglets and adult pigs, divided into categories by weight. The newborn milk pig, weighing 2-6 kg, is grade 1.
The second group includes piglets and young pigs, whose weight is more than 6, but less than 20 kg. These are still underdeveloped animals, which are not recommended to kill.
The third class includes gilts, young females and castrated males in 20-59 kg. The fourth category includes a pig more than 59 kg, it can be both males and females. These animals are allowed to slaughter to get meat or left for breeding.
The basis of pig breeding is not only specific or weight classifications, but also certain concepts - a common farming language. For example, a sow is already called a farrowed pig, a boar is an uncastrated adult male, and a hog is an adult male individual lacking sexual characteristics and having reached a mass of more than 59 kg.
Categorical classification principle: 1 and 2 class
Based on the direction of productivity, pigs are divided into 5 groups. They differ in age, muscle development, mass, but, most importantly, the thickness of the fat. The fat layer in pigs is determined at a point above the spinous processes, between 7 and 6 dorsal vertebrae. The first, or bacon, category has the strictest standards:
- dense white or pinkish fat;
- uniform fat layer (difference up to 2 cm);
- 2 or more layers of muscle tissue;
- no more than 3 control cuts;
- cut width does not exceed 3.5 cm;
- weight 53-72 kg .;
- salted pork thickness 1.5-3.5 cm.
In addition, the length of the first category half carcass must be more than 75 cm, and the skin is clean, smooth and not injured. Also, milk piglets weighing 2-6 kg are classified as category 1.
The second category of pork is meat breeds of pigs. These include carcasses of adults weighing 39-98 kg, and gilt, weighing 12-39 kg. The thickness of the fat in both cases is 1.5-4 cm.
Categorical classification principle: grades 3-5
Pigs of the third category are distinguished by good fat content: the level of bacon is more than 4.1 cm. These include "greasy" breeds of pigs intended for the production of fatty pork. It is important that class 3 pigs has no restrictions on the weight of the carcass and may include both piglets and adult individuals.
The fourth category is the processing carcasses of pigs that do not go for meat. Of them make canned food, black pudding and other products. The weight of the hog in this case should exceed 98 kg, and the thickness of the fat varies in the range of 1.5-4 cm, not taking into account the layer of the skin.
The fifth category includes dairy piglets that do not fall into class 1, weighing 3-6 kg. It is important that the skin after slaughter be white or pinkish, not have tumors, rashes, blood stains, incisions and protruding bones. When weighing pigs, the resulting mass is rounded up. For example, if the scale shows 4.56 kg, then the weight of the carcass is recorded as 5 kg.
1, 2, 3, 4 categories do not belong to the body of the boars, and the carcasses of sows can not belong to the 1 and 2 class.
Direction of slaughter categories
We have already said that in pig breeding there are many classifications of pork, but productivity is one of the main ones. There are 4 types of rocks in this group:
The sebaceous breeds of pigs are distinguished by a rounded body, wide straight back, well-developed shoulder blades and hams, and bacon more than 4 cm. Bacon pigs are the most expensive, but they have the most requirements. We wrote about them above, in the section on 1 category.
The pig meat has a smaller roundness, medium-developed shoulder blades and hams, palpable vertebrae and a fat level of 1.5-4 cm. As for meat and sebaceous breeds, this is the most extensive group in the pig breeding industry. Their carcasses are 30% fat, and 60% meat.
Top popular meat pigs: category description, advantages and disadvantages
All breeds of meat-bearing pigs are characterized by precocity, the share of meat output is 55-58% and the proportion of fat is 20-30%. The best representatives of this type of pig are given below.
The large white pig is one of the most popular breeds of meat in the world. The mass of an adult boar is 280-370 kg, and the sow weighs 190-270 kg. It differs in that, depending on the type of fattening, it can have both meat and meat-tallow orientation. Pigs grow quickly, unpretentious in food and prolific. But their diet should be strictly followed, as they are prone to obesity.
One of the first piglets of meat breed is Landrace bred in Denmark. The adult boar reaches 280-300 kg, and the female 230-250 kg. Differ in fast growth and the highest indicators of a daily gain. In just 6 months, the pig reaches slaughter weight. But these pigs have a very weak skeleton and are easily injured. Read more in the article "Landrace pig breed."
Beautiful and popular breed Duroc, is among the top most popular meat breeds in the world. The female reaches 250 kg, and the boar grows to 300 kg. Pigs are distinguished by a high adaptive capacity, a good slaughter yield, a small layer of bacon and a calm disposition. The downside is low fertility and breathing problems. All the details in the article "Characteristics of the breed of pigs Durok."
Top popular pigs greasy direction: features, advantages and disadvantages
All sebaceous pig breeds are distinguished by a high fat content in the carcass: up to 45% of the total carcass weight. Below are the pedigree pigs of this trend, which are popular all over the world.
Mirgorod pig is distinguished by an interesting spotty color. An adult boar weighs 230-250 kg, and a female 200-220 kg. For one farrowing sows carry 11-12 pigs. Slaughter yield reaches 80-85%. They are easily adaptable, have good immunity and are suitable for different types of content. As for the minuses, the meat of these pigs is of poor quality.
The main breeds of the greasy direction include a big black pig in the top. Hog gains in weight up to 400 kg, and the sow grows up to 280-300 kg. Distinctive features of the pigs are fertility and a large percentage of the survival of the young. The big minus of the breed is loose skin.
An interesting mangalitskaya greasy breed. Animals are small, but can weigh up to 300 kg. They easily tolerate low temperatures, are not picky in food and content. As for the negative sides, this is a high cost due to the rarity of the breed.
Meat-greasy top: characteristics, pros and cons
Pigs of meat and grease are characterized by 60% meat content and 29-37% fat content in carcass. Their cultivation is considered the most profitable.
The Ukrainian steppe white pig with its description fully fits the meat-greasy type. When slaughter, 52-54% of meat and about 36% of fat is obtained. The male weighs around 350 kg, and sow 230-260 kg. Of the features: easily tolerates high temperatures and arid climate. The disadvantages include sagging sacrum.
Breit pigs of pedigree and corresponding characteristics conquered many farmers, including in Russia. By the downhole age, females reach a mass of 220-240 kg, and boars - 310-330 kg. For 12 months the sow can farrow twice, bringing on 11-12 pigs.
The Siberian northern breed of pigs was taken out especially for breeding in cold regions of the country, in which the breeders succeeded. Growing up, boars gain 315-360 kg, and sows 240-260 kg. But some animals of this species have soft headstocks, which is a serious drawback.
Bacon pig breeds - the most expensive with the purchase and maintenance. In addition, they require special care. But at the exit you get meat of excellent quality.
Tamworth is one of the oldest breeds of bacon pigs. The meat of these hogs has virtually no greasy inclusions. An adult individual can reach 300 kg, despite the fact that the length of their bodies does not exceed 150 cm. These breeds of pigs are practically not found in Russia, but are popular in America, Great Britain and Canada.
Gilt Pietrain is a miracle of selection. Their main characteristic - they can not accumulate fat, and it is embedded in the genetic code. The adult hog is gaining 240-260 kg, and the female 220-240 kg. For one litter sow gives birth to no more than 8 piglets. But their survival rate is very high.
The Hampshire Guinea Pig has a specific suit: a pink stripe in the area of the front legs. Their reproduction can occur in any conditions, as animals are unpretentious. Boars grow up to 315 kg, and sows do not gain more than 250 kg. Pigs can be kept in the machines and pastures. But the piglets of this breed are gaining weight for a long time. With age, daily gains increase.
Herbivorous pigs are a common group of piglets whose meat is of the best quality due to a special diet. Working with these pigs, farmers prefer grass feeding, the diet of animals is 80% of hay and root crops.
Vietnamese breed of pigs due to the fact that he eats grass, refers to the bacon, the most qualitative type. But these pigs are not picky at all, they tolerate low temperatures perfectly, they have a high life expectancy (up to 18 years) and good fertility. The minus of the breed is a small weight.
One more herbivorous pigs is a Korean breed, winning over the "Vietnamese" due to its mass: by 8 months it reaches 120 kg. Herbal-type piglets are specially bred as their meat is a delicacy. For example, production of pigs brazier "consider dietary, which is rare for pork.
Delicious breeding of piglets
The production of jamon is a Spanish tradition that has received a new life today. But in order to cook pork ham in this way, it is important not only to properly fatten the animals, but also to choose the right breed of pigs.
To prepare jamon, depending on its type, black Iberian and white pigs are bred.
The most popular, but also more expensive version of jamon is iberico. It is made from black Iberian pigs only in Spain. Until slaughter, pigs are kept on a special acorn diet, occasionally including fodder.
The acquisition of ham Iberico task is not easy, as the Spaniards are reluctant to export this product.
The second version of jamon is serrano. It is prepared from white pigs contained in the forage (acorns in this diet are excluded). Its second name is white ham. By the way, serrano and iberico are made only from the hind legs of the pig.
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