When planning a new crib, you need to carefully consider what the floors will be in the pigsty. Weigh your financial options, because the price is highly dependent on the selected materials. Do not forget about the features of the climate, the number of animals, the purposes for which you brought the herd. All this will affect your choice. And you will learn about the most popular materials for surfaces, necessary tools and effective technologies from our article.
To the pigs in the barn live freely, and they gained weight, they need comfort.
In many ways, the microclimate of the room depends on the design and material of the floor in the pigsty. Its cleanliness, compliance with the requirements of sanitation and hygiene is a guarantee of health and high productivity of livestock.
Therefore, stringent requirements are imposed on the flooring. It should be:
- moisture resistant
- convenient to maintain;
- wear resistant to aggressive environment (animal waste and disinfectants).
Each pig should account for 3-4 square meters. The machine is divided into two parts: the place of feeding and the place of rest. If the floors are concrete, they should be warmed, for example, with wooden flooring from above. Roofing material or plastic film is used for waterproofing.
The floor should have a slope to the manure of the collection of waste and water during cleaning.
What to do in the barn floor
The floor in the pigsty can be made of almost anything: concrete, asphalt, brick or wood. It may be earthen, clay or plastic. Each type of materials has its own advantages, disadvantages, and application features.
Some coatings are made in two layers, with a solid base and solid or grating over the top. The second method is considered more hygienic.
The gaps are acceptable, but small, so that animals, especially piglets, do not hurt themselves. Where the pigs will rest at the feeders, the coating should be solid. Zhizhesbornikov, as in the barns, made of concrete, sawn pipes, bricks. Their size and design depends on the design of the floor and the method of cleaning.
If the floor is slatted, manure flows by gravity. There, down, rushes the water when washing the barn. In this case, the floor should be raised 50-60 cm above the base, and it should have a slope of 3-4 degrees in the direction of the tray.
The benefits of a slit floor
When a slit floor design manure is removed by gravity through the holes in the lower section of the pigsty.
Part of the crib should be taken under the natural needs of pigs. Animals quickly learn to "go to the toilet" in a certain place, and this greatly simplifies the process of cleaning manure and cleaning the floor in the pigsty.
Slotted floors are made of:
As a rule, these are finished blocks (grids), which are laid on a previously prepared base. Plastic and metal grids are more suitable for young animals. Concrete - for adult pigs with a large mass. Sometimes slotted floors for the pig houses are made of boards, but it is traumatic.
The grilles should rest on sturdy supports so that the coating does not sag. Depending on the age of the animals, the gap width varies from 1 to 2 cm, length from 10 to 15 cm. Such a floor is easy to clean with a hose or a "Karcher".
From natural materials
The cheapest and fastest floors are earth and clay. Material for them is literally at hand. From the tools: a bucket, a shovel and something heavy to compact the soil. This is where their merits end.
Such a floor will be cold and will quickly turn into squishing stinking mud. Clean it up is a torment. In addition, pigs can dig it and run away. It is suitable only as a temporary option for several pigs and with a thick layer of litter.
Warm, comfortable and economical floors will be wooden coverings. They are made of boards 50-60 mm thick. Knock them into a solid shield or with a minimum gap.
But wood quickly absorbs odors, swells from urine and moisture, as a result, is rapidly collapsing. Frequent washing only speeds up damage.
Such a coating is good to use as a flooring on top of a more durable construction. If necessary, wooden lathing can be easily replaced, and the base will not require repair for years.
Plastic and asphalt
Plastic shields and grates are a relatively new type of coating, which is gaining popularity due to its price and practicality. Such floors are good both for large pig farms, and for a household farmstead.
Shields and grids are easy to deliver and install, they are warm and light. There is a wide choice on the market and you can choose the necessary equipment. Plastic floors can not withstand a lot of weight and therefore are suitable only for very young piglets and young.
Brick floor - one of the best options. It is durable, will last a long time and does not require additional insulation. On the compacted soil, the bricks are laid out in a herringbone, and the gaps are filled with cement mixture. The main disadvantage of such coverage is the price. But everything will pay off over the years of operation.
For the device of a floor it is possible to use the bricks which remained from construction or dismantling of constructions.
Asphalt flooring is done quickly. This coating is reliable and warm, but porous. Over time, it absorbs manure and other waste. Wash it hard, and gradually the surface is covered with a sticky slippery film.
Metal and concrete
The concrete floor is durable and smooth, it does not absorb moisture and odors, it is easy to clean. If the technology is built, it will last for 15 years. Well suited for large pig farms, but for the maintenance of several pigs, consider other options.
The main disadvantage of such a coating: it is cold. In the warm season it is suitable for adults, but it is not worth using for young cattle and sows.
The problem of insulation is solved in several ways:
- in part of the barn, flooring is made of warmer material (boards or plastic);
- the floor is heated (lay water or electric heating);
- a multilayered base is laid under the concrete, with hydro and thermal insulation.
Metal coating is good to arrange in a pig barn with offspring. The cool surface is beneficial for a nursing sow, but for piglets it’s worth adding a plastic backing on top. This combination will create optimal conditions for feeding the young.
Preparation for the construction of the floor
If you are planning to create slotted floors from concrete or plastic blocks, it is better to buy them ready and then assemble them. Metal grilles can be welded by yourself.
You will need galvanized metal or cast iron blanks with a thickness of at least 5 mm, metal shears, tape measure, protective clothing and a welding machine with electrodes.
Tape measure and fasteners (nails or screws) will be useful for mounting all types of coatings, except cement.
If you do not have the skills to work with metal, think of wooden floors. You will need a hacksaw or saw, a screwdriver or a screwdriver.
If you decide to make a floor of concrete, stock up on sand, gravel, cement, or buy ready-made mixture. Not to do without insulation (for example, expanded clay or foamed glass) and insulation (roofing material or plastic film). A trough and a shovel for the preparation of concrete, a device for soil tamping will be useful.
We make a solid floor yourself
We start with a concrete cast. Remove the soil to a depth of 40 cm. Do not forget to dig a ditch. At the time of construction, close it with a substrate. Tamp the soil thoroughly.
Now it's up to the "pillow" of rubble and sand. The thickness of the rubble layer is 10 cm. Again, tamp, add 5 cm of sand and carefully pour it with water. And again ram. The density should be such that no trace remains on the floor when you advance.
Let it dry. Put waterproofing and insulation. Tamp again, but with less effort.
Mix the cement that does not shrink (for example, B20) with sand and rubble in a 1x2x4 ratio and fill the floor with the resulting mixture. Do not forget the slope to the manure tray. On 2-3 meters of the floor it should be 5-10 cm. The thickness of the screed - 3-5 cm.
To continue to independently equip the pigsty read the article "Trough for a pig with your own hands."
From boards and metal
To build a floor made of wood, it is also necessary to prepare a manure and compact the soil so that the desired slope is formed. In addition, 10–15 cm of the clay layer is tamped on top. Lags from a square bar of 50-60 mm every 70-100 cm are laid on the mud base. Planks are placed tightly from above.
The slit floor made of metal is easiest to do in the conditions of domestic pig breeding, unless, of course, you have the necessary skills.
Ram down the dirt base. Do not forget about the structure of the ditch and slope to it.
Mark, cut and install supports for the future grid (for example, from scrap metal or ceramic-concrete pipe). There should be at least five of them (in the corners and one in the center), for reliability it is possible more. Depending on the number and age of livestock.
Calculate the required number of metal stripes for your surface. The gap between them should not be more than 20 mm for adult animals, otherwise they will be stuck in the floor.
Weld the grid overlap. Lay it on the supports and weld. Sometimes lattices make cast iron, but they are heavy.
In the place of feeding and resting animals make a solid wooden platform. Make it removable for easy cleaning.
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