In pig breeding, pigs are almost always an integral part of their housing. Hogs that go to the tribe do not undergo this procedure. The bachelor of those that are for slaughter. This operation allows you to interrupt the function of the gonads partially or completely. Sometimes it is done according to indications. Different methods and techniques are used. There are certain difficulties and nuances in this process with adult boars. All this we will discuss later in the article.
Reasons to bachelor
Castration, or baling, is an operation that allows you to remove the sex glands of the animal. At home, surgery is used, as this is a well-proven and not too complicated option. Castrated boars are called hogs, and not baled, boars.
Typically, the testes are removed from newborns or young piglets. At an early age it is much easier to carry. However, adults, formed individuals, are often operated on. Consider why they do it.
In general, castration carries only positive points:
- Hog meat does not have an unpleasant smell and taste and is considered to be of high quality, unlike knur meat (boar);
- wild boars become calmer, more balanced, do not show aggression, do not attack people and other pigs, may be in the herd;
- all females will be protected from unsuitable for the tribe males in case of unplanned mating (there are males for insemination in pig breeding);
- boars do not experience excessive excitement, due to which boars lose their appetite and weight.
The benefits are many, but ridding pork of smell is paramount. Sometimes there is a strong indication for the castration of an adult boar. This is a hernia, neoplasm, any inflammation of the sex glands.
Sometimes sows are sterilized. The operation is expensive and complicated. After her meat gain is insignificant. A pig can only be fattened.
It is advisable to castrate boars at an early age. If a pig is put on bacon fattening, then until it reaches two months. All the rest must be plowed up to 6 months, so that they do not have sexual instincts (details in the article "On castration of pigs"). Boar sent for slaughter, must undergo the procedure for 1.5-2 months. For best results, you can wait 6 months.
If the boar is castrated after six months, there is a risk that he will show aggression, since the process of puberty has already started.
12-20 hours before the castration of boars can not be fed feed and coarse feed. Some hay or grass is allowed. But you can water a lot. The animal must walk for intestinal emptying to occur.
There are no clear restrictions on the season, but a warm, cool period is welcomed. The animals are badly affected by harmful insects, due to which infection of the wound can occur and healing will be delayed.
Other procedures for pigs, such as deworming and vaccinations, are two weeks apart.
Do not castrate pigs during outbreaks of various infectious diseases.
Surgical and bloodless methods
Castration boar can be different - closed and open ways. It all depends on age, the presence of any complications and indications. There are ways that can seem quite costly, and there are some that can be done without financial investments with your own hands. Let's take a closer look at each method.
By the open option is castration on the ligature, which is carried out in a pig at the age of 10 days. There is also a way to break the spermatic cord, but it is practiced on newborn cubs that are not more than 15 days old.
The closed (bloodless) variant also includes several different ways of how to stop the activity of the sex glands. One of them is called immunological castration of boars. It is carried out with the help of the drug Improvak. The drug affects the performance of the testicles and leads to their regression.
Boar make an injection subcutaneously, behind the ear (2 ml). The interval between injections for at least four weeks. The second injection must be done before slaughter for 1-1.5 months. Chemical castration makes animals less aggressive and removes the unpleasant smell of meat products. Such a bloodless way of influencing the work of the immune system is considered to be more humane, but it requires a lot of money and therefore it is practically not used in home farm conditions.
We will describe below how to unseat adults, large boars using a closed surgical method.
Before the procedure
Castration of boars in a closed way can be performed in the position of the animal lying down or standing. Before the procedure you need to conduct an inspection of the genitals. Before this, the male is fixed with ropes. You need to tie all the limbs. It is convenient to work if there is a machine for castration, but it is usually used for small individuals. And for large fit a big barrel, like any cramped space.
Examination of the genital organs of the animal should not reveal any damage to the skin and wounds. Wool is clipped on the operated surface, after which the place is washed and smeared with iodine for disinfection.
The tools that will be needed during castration are a scalpel, surgical scissors, a needle and special threads. Everything is disinfected by any alcohol based product. Antiseptics are prepared for the treatment of wounds. Adult boars should be given general anesthesia (during surgery, while lying down) or local anesthesia (while standing). In the second variant, sedatives are added to the animals.
The person who conducts the castration procedure boars should thoroughly wash their hands and wear sterile gloves.
When everything is ready for surgery, pigs anesthesia is most important. Adults are strong and need to be calmed.
When bulls are scheduled to lie down in the supine position, intravenous anesthesia, such as Thiopental sodium or Pentothal sodium, is used. These are 5% solutions, which are administered in a dose of 15 mg / kg of the pig mass. At first, the animal is calmed by the intramuscular administration of Azoperone (1 ml / 10 kg of weight). After 15 minutes, half of the anesthesia is injected, and after the eyelids are closed, the second half is injected.
Anesthesia lasts 15-20 minutes. If necessary, this condition can be extended with a third dose. After castration, the hog's dream will last another 2-3 hours.
If the boar is neutered while standing, then local anesthesia is done. A solution of novocaine 4% is injected into the thickness of the spermatic cord. Dose - 10 ml. For additional effect, it is desirable to introduce the same drug subcutaneously, in the place where the scrotum will be cut. Before injections of anesthesia boars are given sleeping pills. This may be a neuroleptic, whose name is Strasnil. A dose of 0.5 mg / kg of weight simply calms, and after 2 mg / kg the animal will fall asleep.
As soon as the anesthesia process is started, you can proceed to castration. Use your left hand to grab the testis, and cut the scrotal skin and the common vaginal membrane with a scalpel. Then the vaginal ligament is broken, and the seminal cord must be separated from the shell. The ligature is superimposed on the thinned part. After that, scissors should be cut off the testes in two cm from the ligation.
There is another way - closed. It is used for adult animals most often. In this case, the skin on the scrotum is dissected, but without the seizure of the vaginal membrane, and moves away.
Hand it is necessary to turn the testicle, together with the vaginal membrane around its axis. After that, a ligature is placed on it and on the spermatic cord, near the inguinal ring. Now the testis with part of the shell can be cut off.
If the scrotum cuts turned out to be large, then they need to be sewn up with the help of a thread and a needle. This applies in the two cases described. Next, the wound is treated with "Tricillin".
Care of the hog
A castrated boar should be properly cared for after the procedure. First of all, it provides rest and observation of the animal for several days. Do not use litter of sawdust, as they can provoke wound infection. It must be lubricated with bactericidal agents.
If in the operated place the boar has swelling and redness, then you should seek help from a veterinarian. It is also possible the manifestation of early and late complications. For example, the opened bleeding. If it is drip, it means from the vessels of the scrotum, and if jet, then from the vessels of the spermatic cord. In the first case, tamponing may help, and in the second, a ligature must be applied to the spermatic cord.
Castrated male pigs are subject to such complications as intestinal prolapse. This is perhaps the most dangerous. The small intestine (its loops) can fall out of a wound formed after castration.
To assist the pig must be under anesthesia and lying down. First of all, you need to clean the gut of dirt. It is washed with an isotopic solution of sodium chloride and rivanol (1: 1000). Next you need to stretch the vaginal membrane in the form of a funnel. Intestines are inserted into the abdominal cavity.
After that, the membrane is separated from the scrotal tissue and twisted with the spermatic cord. Overlapping piercing ligature. This action resembles a closed castration.
Antibiotics and Novocainic blockade of nearby nerves are assigned to the animal. In order to prevent the loss of intestines, it is impossible to keep boars until castration on a long hungry diet.
Prevention of complications
In order to prevent complications after castration, it is necessary to use antiseptic agents for instruments and for the treatment of wounds.
Tools can be sterilized in a special apparatus, and metal can be burned with alcohol. To do this, they fit into the pelvis, watered with an alcoholic solution and set on fire. After burning all objects are decontaminated. Various fabrics, bandages are processed by the iron.
Poor fixation of the boar also leads to complications. If an animal for castration needs to be knocked down, then it can get physical damage - fractures or shock. Anesthesia and anesthesia help. Thus, pigs tolerate an unnatural body position well.
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