In Europe, pig fermentation bedding is one of the innovative tools used in farms. It helps to cope with many problems, in particular, with the accumulation and cleaning of manure. Special bacteria process faeces into useful fertilizer. As a result, the peculiar smell of excrement disappears. In the article you will learn how a similar biological floor is made in a pigsty and how it should be maintained.
Little helpers in big business
With new technologies in the pig industry to ensure perfect cleanliness in the pigsty was not so difficult. This can be done even at home, when the household is very small. Pig bedding works on the principle of "bio" toilets.
It is “inhabited” by beneficial bacteria capable of digesting the waste products of pigs. In addition, the litter "bio" produces thermal energy, affects the thermoregulation of animals, creating additional comfort for them.
The main component of the litter for pigs with bacteria are dry stalks of cereal - straw mixed with wood chips, sawdust and other organic matter. It is treated with special preparations containing coprophagous bacteria that eat excreta - feces and urine. Thanks to these microorganisms, unpleasant manure odors disappear.
Requirements for the room and floor
The maintenance of pigs on deep litter does not require excessive efforts and costs. The room can be the simplest, where the frame and the awning are made of inexpensive materials. However, during construction, special attention should be paid to the ventilation system and the absence of drafts.
The soil under the pigsty should flow well. If you still can not fix it - you should increase the thickness of the flooring. Where non-removable bedding is used, concrete floors are not recommended. But the small slope they should have. If it is difficult to get rid of concrete, it can be covered with wooden shields.
The formation of natural litter for pigs should be started by putting straw on the floor interspersed with sawdust about 20 cm high. A preparation containing bacteria for processing pig manure is added on top.
We create bacteria comfort
According to the technology, the first layer of natural flooring is saturated with moisture, compacted with animals. Then it ted, put a fresh material and again sprinkled with a biological product. And so several times, until you get a "floor covering" with a thickness of 0.5 to 1 m.
As a rule, the litter for piglets is also treated several times with special means (this depends on the type of microorganisms and the manufacturer). Before laying should carefully read the instructions.
It is necessary to take into account - bacteria for laying in the pigsty will not start their work in cold conditions. Therefore, laying out the floor should be dealt with in the warm season, at a temperature not lower than 5-10 degrees.
Manure is characterized by rapid ramming, which bacteria do not like very much. They begin oxygen starvation. Therefore, in the most polluted places, the upper layer should be periodically updated and agitated.
Pigs will say thank you
Pigs in the biofield are free to walk, move, which is especially important on frosty days. Feed them should, following the rule - fiber should be approximately 50% of the total feed. It helps fermentation.
For sows with piglets, the flooring should have a more crushed structure. It is advisable to move the kids to a separate place, which will be illuminated by infrared rays.
The peculiarity of "live" litter is that large breaks associated with the absence of animals and, consequently, feces can lead to the stopping of bacteria. Microorganisms go into hibernation.
Pigs on the fermentation litter very much. They can fully apply the digging talents. They have due to motor activity improves physical fitness, become stronger bones and higher immunity.
More pluses than minuses
The advantages of deep litter for pigs include:
- improving the appearance and health of gilts, health, weight gain, meat quality;
- saving time and effort on cleaning manure from the pigsty;
- ease of use;
- universality of application - suitable for large and small private farms;
- good heat transfer (in the lower layers the temperature can reach up to 40 degrees), and, consequently, savings on heating the barn;
- the inability to settle down to rodent neighbors, since inside the litter "bio" is constantly "hot", pigs reduce the risk of diseases;
- it is not often a change - every 1.5-5 years (depending on the preparation), while the used flooring can be perfectly used as a fertilizer.
The disadvantages are much smaller: the litter still needs to be changed, which requires a lot of time, good bacteria for the pigsty are expensive.
Option "for your loved ones"
For the processing of waste products of pigs, yeast, lactobacilli, fecal enterococci and other microorganisms included in different preparations are used.
For example, after treating the prepared coating with the “Net-Plast” preparation, no means can be applied for as long as three years. It is enough to periodically (once a month) loosen the top layer. 1 kg of bio-mixture goes to 10 cubic meters of litter. For pigs, it will be 15 square meters. m with a layer thickness of 60 cm. The price is about 5,000 rubles per kg.
Other similar means "Biolatik Multi-25" is consumed in a volume of 1 kg per 25 square meters. The recommended straw coating thickness is 50 cm. The treated floor serves 2 years. The advantage of the drug is the possibility of use at sub-zero temperatures. The powder crumbles evenly, the floor spills, and then the animals start up. Price - about 4000 rubles. for 1 kg.
The preparation "Animal Farm" is spread on the prepared floor in the amount of 5 g per 1 sq. Km. m. Manufacturers are advised to first spread out about 30 cm of straw, process it, and then after a couple of days another 30 cm with repeated processing.
The litter treated with this preparation is removed after a year and a half. Price - approximately 1300 rubles. for 0.5 kg.
"Biocompost 21" was created together with Ufa scientists. They recommend that bedding should be proportioned with straw and sawdust - 1: 1. The term of operation is from 1,5 to 2 years. Air temperature should not be below 4 degrees. On 1 square. m floor takes 7.5 g of the drug (in the case of straw-sawdust mixture). For a good effect, warm litter is processed 1 time in 3 weeks. Price - 900 rubles. for 0.5 kg.
Moisture - Enemy # 1
The litter, populated by bacteria, must always be dry. One of the main reasons for its strong moisture is poor ventilation in the pigsty. This can be seen from the dew effect, condensate. Humidity can be controlled using the hood. It should be 40-50%.
With a natural rug, an unpleasant story can happen even if one of the walls freezes in the pigsty. Therefore, it is imperative to insulate both the outer and inner sides of the walls.
Increased humidity of the floor can be a consequence of spilling water from drinking bowls, falling into the litter of liquid food.
It is also necessary to take into account that organic materials are quickly trampled, therefore it is recommended to add fresh sawdust every 2-3 weeks. To stir the litter should be at least once a week, both at home and on large farms.
Special drying agent
In order to get rid of excess moisture, the bedding material with bacteria in the pigsty can be treated with a special agent. The litter dehumidifier is a powder containing various mineral and vegetable components.
It dries the floor, absorbs harmful vapors of ammonia, has antibacterial properties. Especially this tool is indispensable for the place where the sow lives and its litter. It contributes to the rapid healing of the umbilical cord in babies.
Dehumidifier litter "Staldren" produced in Denmark. He, along with his direct destination, is a fighter against bacteria, including E-coli. It is used as an antiseptic for wounds, and as a treatment for the room where animals with signs of diarrhea were located.
The Mikadez litter dehumidifier will also help to improve sanitary conditions in the pigsty. Additionally, it is recommended to wipe off newborn piglets with this drug.
The second life of the natural floor
Non-removable bedding is not removed for the time being. This moment comes and it can be determined by several signs: the almost black color of the lowest layer, poor absorbability of excrement, the appearance of a persistent unpleasant smell, a decrease in temperature.
Many farmers give a second life to litter - after pigs they are used as organic fertilizer for plants.
However, experts do not consider it ideal, because the main goal of bacteria is the utilization of manure, the main element of top dressing. And yet - no one forbids the use of old bedding material to produce humus. It can be run faster in gardens and fields, it is longer and better stored.
It is possible to improve the quality of the fertilizer obtained by this method due to the feed, the content of dry substances.
Economic benefits of know-how
Experts note: the use of "live" litter for pigs affects not only their health and appearance, but also the amount of farmer costs. It becomes much less due to the complete elimination of manual labor for cleaning manure, saving on heating, fighting rodents, and treating animals.
Thanks to the litter, one person can serve the pigsty with 300 piglets.
Improving living conditions gives faster weight gain in young animals. Compared to traditional technology, the average daily weight gain is 70–80 g more. The share of meat in the carcass also increases - by almost 3%.
It is possible to compare specific figures on costs and revenues only after selecting a specific type of litter and preparation.
According to representatives of individual brands, warm litter "bio" for the maintenance of one pig per year will cost only 600-800 rubles.
With other subtleties going after the pigs, see the article "On systems and methods of keeping pigs."
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