Details on how to castrate a pig, and most importantly, why, we will tell in this article. Castration, or baling, is done in different ways. For this there are medical indications or economic benefits. The main goal is to interrupt the function of the gonads in whole or in part. For this procedure, you can call the vet, but if the owner of the farm has the skills, you can do everything on their own. This will reduce financial costs.
The meaning of the procedure
Growing piglets is accompanied by a change in their body, which concerns the increase in hormone production. This is the moment of puberty as the animals grow. In males, this period begins at 6 months.
If you do not castrate the pig, then it faces the following troubles:
- regular sexual hunting, during which the pig is excited, restless;
- weight loss in an animal, because it practically does not eat (meat quality is deteriorating);
- accidental insemination of a female by an unsuitable male;
- Piggy (boar) aggression - an attack on relatives and people, damage to equipment, cells, injury to others;
- sharp and persistent smell of meat, which makes the product unsuitable for food.
If a pig is fattened for meat, then it must be single. The presence of diseases such as inflammation of the testes and ovaries, hernia, neoplasms, are also indications for the procedure.
Work with the sex glands
The process of castration is based on the complete removal of the sex glands or on stopping their work. There are different options - surgical, chemical, hormonal.
The surgical method is often used for piglets at home. It is the most standard and not too complicated. Such an operation can be performed independently, and this is the extraction of the sex glands. After surgery, the animal's body undergoes changes that are associated with hormones and metabolism. Below we consider why castration is beneficial.
Pluses advantages are that fewer feeds will be consumed, because hog piglets gain weight much faster than boars. Since individuals fatten for slaughter, the meat will be of good quality, tender, without an unpleasant smell and taste. It is also much easier to group animals, because they become calm and not aggressive.
Now find out at what age castrated piglets. Clear data in this area yet, research continues. However, there are recommendations that best tolerate the operation of youngsters.
To reduce blood loss, the emasculation is carried out in the interval from 10 to 45 days after the birth of the male. Plus the fact that complications at this age are minimal, moreover, it is easier to keep the animal. Wounds heal quickly, and anesthesia and the use of other medications are most often not required or used in minimal amounts.
In addition, breast milk contains the necessary antibodies for early rehabilitation. Nearby, the sow calves quickly calm down.
There is evidence that the optimal age for castration is selected based on the breed. Vietnamese pigs are recommended to do this in 1.5-2 months. Very often piglets are castrated at the age of three days old, and sometimes the procedure is carried out by adult boars. Read about it in the article "About castration of pigs."
By the time of year there are no clear recommendations, any period will do. But the preference period, when the flies have not yet woken up or have fallen asleep, that is, it is a cool time.
If you choose the time of day, it is desirable to carry out the operation in the morning. So it is possible to observe the piglets after castration in the daylight. If vaccination or any other interventions into the animal's body are planned, then after each procedure two weeks should pass. At the same time everything can not be done.
Castrated piglets should be inspected before groin surgery. On the skin of the scrotum should not be damaged. Fingers can probe the spermatic cord and testicles, determine their size. In the same place with the help of palpation, you need to make sure that there are no pronounced pathologies in the form of a hernia, tumor, gathered fluid, glands.
All tools must be prepared in advance. Conveniently fix the animals will help the machine for castration of pigs. With it, they immobilize, not causing inconvenience during surgery. Often youngsters just hold their hands, tightly clutching their limbs.
Necessary tools for castration are scalpels, scissors, clips to stop blood, needles with needle holders and silk thread. Be sure to need disinfectants, bandages, cotton wool.
Now we will tell about how to properly prepare the one who will conduct the operation. Need to pay attention to the hands. Burrs are removed from the fingers, nails are cut. Before the procedure, hands are thoroughly washed and sterile gloves are worn.
In veterinary medicine, several different ways are known for how to castrate piglets. There are options with blood and without blood. The latter is costly. This is either chemical or radiological methods. In this case, the skin is not damaged.
Under the intervention "with the blood" imply a direct violation of the integrity of the skin. Here we need surgical manipulations. In turn, this method can be open (removal or separation of the spermatic cord) or closed (operations on large individuals). There is still a partial removal of the testis, but the disadvantage is that there is no complete cessation of the functions of the sex glands.
Small piglets usually use open castration methods. One of them is called "on ligature" and is conducted from two months of age. Another species is characterized by a precipice of the spermatic cord. It is carried out when the cubs are 10 to 20 days old.
For those who are engaged in breeding pigs, castration of pigs with their own hands - this is a more profitable option. Pigs can be many, which will require investments in the services of a specialist. But, if there are any pathologies, for example, scrotal hernia or testicular abnormalities, it is best to call the veterinarian. If you are interested in how much such a procedure costs, then it depends on the method of castration, the age of the animals, the use of anesthesia.
Fix the animal
The scheme of castration of young animals is not complicated. It can be used at home. For piglets anesthesia is not carried out. Any available fixing method will do. The main thing is to be strong.
In the scrotum area, hair should be removed and the surface should be disinfected. First, you can use denatured alcohol for degreasing, and then iodine. Then you need to probe and grab the testicle with the fingers of your left hand. He is detracted and an incision is made in a centimeter from the bright line (seam) with a scalpel. Sometimes they make two cuts for each testicle. Dissect all scrotal tissue.
The testis that you want to extract opens. The spermatic cord is clamped between the fingers and a ligature is applied to it.. After that, you need to retreat, approximately 1 cm in the direction of the testicle and in this place to cut the cord. The remaining stump is preferably smeared with iodine. The edges of the wound are treated with Vaseline oil. You can choose any suitable antiseptics.
Skin treatment, incision, extraction of the testes - all this also precedes the procedure for castration, when the spermatic cord is cut off. The difference is that it is not cut, but pulled and twisted. Gradually, he must separate. Sometimes the gap is produced by a sharp movement. To avoid complications, the wound is treated with antiseptics.
The castration procedure is quite simple and usually does not work out for young piglets. Sometimes there are troubles, which will be discussed later. They look after young stock from 3 days to a week to exclude complications. It is necessary to monitor the state of the wound and the general state of health of the animal.
Castrated pig should be at rest. It is best to separate it from the herd in a separate cage. It should be clean, dry litter, but not from sawdust. They can fall into the cut and cause infection. If the wound becomes red and inflamed, then you should seek help from a veterinarian.
Frequent cases of early and late complications. The first come within a few hours or immediately after surgery. The second are those that manifest themselves in a day and later.
Among such cases can be distinguished bleeding. Abundant (trickle) occurs from the vessels of the spermatic cord, and weak (drip) from the vessels of the scrotum.
In both cases, you need to put tweezers on these areas. If the blood from the vessels continues to flow, then they are ligated, after having pulled the cord from the scrotum with the fingers. Crushing is allowed. This is when Zand forceps are applied to the stump for 5-7 minutes.
If there was a loss of the gland, then an urgent intervention should be carried out. Be sure to use antiseptics. That part of the gland that fell out is removed.
Loss of intestines is a particularly dangerous complication. It can occur even during castration, but sometimes much later. It is necessary to clean the intestine from contamination using an isotopic solution of sodium chloride.
The reduction operation is carried out under anesthesia and in the dorsal position of the pig. To avoid peritonitis intramuscularly inject antibiotics and produce a blockade of the celiac nerves. All activities described should be performed by a veterinarian.
In order to prevent complications after castration of piglets, it is necessary to prepare the room well. All machines and bedding must be clean.
Piglets the day before the operation is deposited in a separate pen. It is advisable to wash the animal, check the temperature of the body and assess its general condition.
If the machine is used for fixing piglets, then put a washstand and all the necessary tools. They are pre-disinfected, like all work surfaces. If there is no machine, and the animal is held by hands, then all devices should be near. After one individual was castrated, all devices and hands should be treated with an antiseptic. Then you can take the next pig.
The correct technique of the procedure allows to avoid many complications in piglets. If possible, you need to see how a specialist does it, and only then start the operation yourself at home.
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