For the full maintenance of animals and maintaining a healthy microclimate, ventilation in the pigsty is of paramount importance. Ultimately, this is one of the devices, the result of which affects the productivity of the farm. Properly organized movement of air will reduce humidity and reduce the concentration of gases in the room. Creating such a system is not something particularly difficult, but this process has its own characteristics, which will be discussed.
Justification of the need for ventilation
Some part of the pig breeder does not pay attention to the ventilation in the pigsty at all, considering that it is not necessary to equip the hood. Here it is safe to talk about an erroneous point of view, because air exchange directly affects the conditions of the pigs. And if so, then on their health and, accordingly, the quality of the products.
There are several advantages in using ventilation systems on farms:
- increasing overall livestock health and reducing disease in the herd;
- Proper air purification makes it possible to place more heads in the shed;
- allows pigs to gain weight faster;
- the fecundity of the herd grows;
- electricity consumption will be less due to the integrated work of ventilation with cooling systems and space heating.
All these advantages are achievable, provided the correct approach to the creation of ventilation, and you can do it yourself. The main thing is to correctly calculate everything. Then the creation of ventilation in the pigsty with their own hands will not cause much difficulty.
Existing ventilation options
The functional task of ventilation is not only the removal of odors from the room, resulting from the vital activity of animals. Due to the presence in the barn ventilation system, pathogens lose the environment for their reproduction and development.
The circulation of air masses inside the pigsty has its own norms, the change of which depends on the season and the age of the animals.
So, in the summer period, the standard of air circulation in the room for newborn calves and sows are indicators from 0.3 to 0.4 m / s. For piglets aged from 2 to 4 months - 0.6 m / s, and for adult individuals - 1 m / s. In the cold season, these figures range from 0.15 to 0.3 m / s.
Ventilation can be natural when air exchange is carried out at the expense of cracks in the floor and walls of the pig farm, windows, doors or air vents, and artificial, that is, created by human hands. In the second case, the system is a complex of mines and channels through which air masses move.
Exhaust ducts discharge waste streams outside the pigsty, while intake ducts provide fresh air into the premises.
Types of systems and the right choice.
To date, five types of ventilation systems are used for pig houses: roof ventilation, diffuse, longitudinal, transverse, tunnel. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages, but the latter are usually associated with the wrong choice of devices for a particular room. Let's figure out how to make ventilation in the pigsty and choose suitable devices for this.
Consider the factors that influence the choice of ventilation. First of all, it matters how much air arrives in the pigsty from the outside, taking into account seasonality. Indeed, in summer, the air flow becomes stronger, and in the winter, on the contrary, weaker. Next, it is important to find out how the air masses circulate in the shed, how much the air temperature and the force of the wind in this area affect this aspect.
It is also necessary to take into account where the pigsty is located, in a valley or on a hill, what are its dimensions and the planned number of heads in the herd. Only after all these factors will be analyzed and studied, you can begin to work on the installation of the ventilation system.
Features of ventilation in winter
To mount ventilation in a pigsty with your own hands is worth it if only because it will be cheaper than hiring third-party people.
In cold weather inside the barn, the velocity of air flow at a height of 0.5 m cannot exceed 0.25 m / s. This is the maximum rate. For example, for machines with a solid fence rate is even lower. When air moves with greater speed, then in conditions of low temperature the risk of overcooling of pigs becomes very high, and this leads to illness and death.
Equally important is the multiplicity of air exchange. In winter, the indicator can not exceed 4-5 volumes of the room pigsty. Direct inlet flow in the cold should not directly fall into the herd, for this purpose, diffusers are placed in the ventilation shafts.
There are temperature standards that the pigsty must meet in winter. So, in the place of the survey of pigs - it is 18-22 degrees of heat, in the room for the young - 22-27, in the area of rearing piglets - from 20 to 22 degrees, in the fattening zone of pigs - 18-20.
If the temperature is below these parameters, then besides a threat to the life and health of animals, there is also an inevitable drop in daily weight gain.. It is about 22 grams one degree below normal.
A few recommendations for installing ventilation
The ventilation system consists of pipes used for air inflow and exhaust. When choosing, the focus is on the diameter of their section. Along with the correct installation, this factor plays a decisive role in the proper functioning of the system.
When choosing the diameter of the air ducts, the herd population is taken as the basis: the diameter for each pig is between 0.7 and 0.95 square meters. m, per adult - 3-4.
Installation is carried out in longitudinal walls at a height of about 2 m. Wind guards should be installed on the street side, the need for which is simply explained: they will help to correctly adjust the volume and direction of air entering the pigsty. At 1 cu. m of incoming air must be 2 square meters. see the vent hole.
When arranging forced ventilation, appropriate equipment is installed in the ducts. Its capacity depends on the volume of air required, the size of the pigsty and the number of the herd.
The loudness of the ventilation equipment is directly dependent on its power. The norm is the range of decibels from 57 to 80. Such indicators may be higher if in the process of installation of the equipment were inaccuracies and violations. For example, the volume can reach 120 dB, which is not normal.
To reduce the volume level of functioning equipment during installation work in the ventilation ducts, special inserts from tarpaulin are used. Upon completion, it is necessary to test the effectiveness of the created ventilation system. This can be done with the help of indoor smoke, provided that the windows and doors are closed.
Device of different types of systems
When arranging the ventilation of the roof type, the air inlets are located as close as possible to the roof of the side walls of the pigsty. The exhaust system is located on the ceiling and also as close as possible to the roof. The openings of both these subsystems are equipped with regulators, thanks to which the direction and volume of air flows can be changed at their discretion.
A more effective option is a diffuse roof system, the scheme of which involves the construction of additional input side channels and fans at the exit.
Longitudinal and transverse ventilation are similar to each other, the difference lies in the location of entrances and exits in these systems: transverse ventilation holes are made in the side walls and longitudinal at the ends of the building.
Otherwise there is no difference. The exchange of air masses takes place in a forced manner, the holes in the inlet and outlet parts of the system are arranged symmetrically. Longer systems require more powerful equipment, otherwise the handling will not be particularly effective.
Finally, the tunnel system assumes the location of the ventilation unit and air duct louvers in the shed on opposite sides. Due to this, the air masses are moving as if through a tunnel. Fans come into play if natural wind is not enough to create an optimal microclimate.
System installation instructions and necessary materials
How to make the ventilation, will prompt the draft. Thanks to him, you can perform all the calculations and pick up the right amount of materials. Only after that you can start the installation work.
As an example, we can take a common variant of the arrangement of forced-type roof ventilation. For the installation of such a system will need two fans. Place them in the window and at the roof. The power of these devices should be the same. In addition, it is desirable that they can operate in several modes.
Grilles are also required. They are installed on exhaust outlets in the wall of the building. You will need a supply pipe, its diameter is calculated based on the size of the pigsty, as well as the hood itself, but it must be at least 100 mm. It is mounted on the outer wall of the pigsty and put inside through the holes. The pipe should be securely fixed, for this purpose mounting brackets are used.
Next, install the shields, which will overlap as necessary the movement of air and adjust its intensity. They are mounted on the holes of the air ducts and correspond to their sizes.
You will also need to install a divider in front of the inlet of the intake system so that the air in the shed is not directed by the targeted flow to the animals. To improve the efficiency of ventilation and protect the system from dirt, dust and leaves, it is necessary to put a deflector on the pipe that serves to increase traction. It is placed above the duct to increase the flow of air in the system.
The installation process uses conventional fixing tools, including shackles, drill, bolts, screws, hacksaw.
Nuances requiring special attention
There are moments that are equally important for any livestock facility, be it a ventilation installation in a barn or a pigsty.
Pipes of the inlet system should be placed vertically. If they are mounted in the roof, they should be insulated. For this purpose, you can use mineral wool or equip the box.
When ventilated equipment is not placed on the hood, its installation on the inflow is also not recommended. If this moment is ignored, then a situation will be created in which the pigsty will quickly cool, and the animals will freeze. Therefore, all equipment that blows air must be placed both at the inlet and at the outlet of the system.
Following these simple guidelines will make the ventilation system more efficient and reliable.
Check out the article "What can you do in the pigsty floor," if you want to continue to equip a room for pigs.
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