When small piglets are born, it is necessary to initially provide high-quality maintenance and proper feeding. These components are paramount to ensure high animal productivity. When growing young stock, there are several stages - schooling newborns for solid food, weaning from sows, timely castration, preventive vaccinations. In the article we will tell how to care, what to feed and how to keep babies in the first months of life.
Time to clean up from sows
Weaning piglets from sows can occur at different times. For example, in large pig farms, this is done early, at about a month of age, because females are used for several farrowings per year (details in the article “Everything about sows”) and it is necessary that it recover faster.
In the village on their own farmsteads, young stock can be taken away much later (in two months). This also has its plus - less labor costs and feed savings, because pig milk contains all the necessary vitamins and trace elements. However, the catch is that there is a cost to feed a lactating animal.
Early weaning is considered when the piglets are removed from the mother to two months of age. All this time they are kept in special departments, which are described in the article "Cages for sows and piglets."
When weaning from the mother, you need to look at the state of the offspring. Individuals must be developed, strong, weighing at least 7 kg.
The advantage of early weaning is that piglet digestive organs begin to develop faster, which contributes to accelerated growth and weight gain. At the same time, the sow retains its dimensions, and the one from which the offspring is taken after 2 months, significantly loses weight. And this is unprofitable for the farmer.
Early departed calves are already gaining up to 20 kg of weight by 8 weeks. If, however, weaning is late, when the piglets are 2 months old and more, they are very depleting pigs. For the next coating she needs to recover up to three months, and this is a big feed cost, from about 1 to 1.5 centners.
Preparing for solid food
For piglets, weaning is a great deal of stress that can lead to poor condition and illness. To prevent this, you need to prepare in advance the cubs for this moment.
Preparation of piglets for weaning is carried out according to the following plan:
- the beginning of feeding, when on the third day of life you can feed the offspring with boiled water, and from the fifth day cow's milk in small quantities;
- continue feeding at the age of 5-7 days with thick oatmeal or oat kissel;
- on the tenth day, a trough with finely chopped hay can be put into the pen with the piglets;
- introduction of tops and roots, succulent grass in the second week of young growth.
It happens that a pig dies during childbirth. In this case, newborn piglets are fed with a special diet, which is similar to sow's colostrum (for more information, see the article “On feeding suckling pigs”). Sometimes farmers milk it at the beginning of the generic process to make a stock just in case.
During the implementation of the stages of the above plan, you can slightly limit the time spent pigs next to a pig. But the young still receive the main food in the form of milk from the mother. In two months the weaning itself is already happening. In pig farms, as we said above, early weaning with monthly piglets is practiced.
Weaning piglets is a gradual process for the sow, which must also be prepared. She needs to limit drinking and reduce calorie intake. This will reduce milk production.
Periodically, the female can be taken away from the piglets, for example, during their sleep, and brought only at the time of feeding. Gradually, over several days (4-5), the number of meals from the mother's udder decreases from 6 times to 3. It is better not to disturb sleeping young animals and feed them later.
During the entire period of milk feeding, the udder of the pig must be inspected to prevent the development of mastitis.
Seated young usually become restless and may show great interest in food. Excessive appetite is not good for them, because the digestive system is still very tender. It is best to reduce the daily amount of food by 20% after weaning piglets from the sow. Over the next 10 days, the diet is again brought to normal. Still, for about two weeks, the offspring is better left alone to smooth out the resulting stress.
If weaned out monthly piglets, they still need milk. Suitable cow. You need to feed often (after 2-3 hours), but in small portions. When the young are two months old, the number of feedings is reduced to once a day. Lure solid food continues.
Weaning the piglets from the sow involves moving the female to another room. The youngsters are left in the same machine where he sleeps, eats and awakes. In a familiar place, they are safer to experience this stressful situation.
Feed can not be changed. Its composition should be the same as in the period with the mother. After about two weeks, the offspring is deposited in another room. The location of the jigging should be dry and warm (20-23 degrees), because the young stock does not tolerate damp or drafts. On one individual must account for 0.5 square meters. m square. Details in the article "How to keep pigs at home."
Both in the pig farm and in the village, pigs in 2-3 months may experience a certain period when they become addicted to life without a sow. At this time, the appetite may deteriorate, digestive problems begin, and due to this there will be no proper weight gain. You need to choose an acceptable diet, which will be discussed below, and keep the pigs in a comfortable environment.
Walking and swimming
In spring and summer, young animals are released for walks. If the place of walking is sown with grass, then the pig can immediately eat greens. At home and on large farms, green food starts to be given in 2 weeks so that its digestive system is used to grass.
On pasture animals can walk 2-3 times a day. For a start, 20 minutes will be enough, and by 2 months the time is reduced to an hour or more. It helps to improve the appetite and hardens the animal. Under the open sun, the first walk should be no more than 10-15 minutes. Gradually increase the time.
Bathing is one of the basic requirements for the care of piglets. This cleansing from dirt and harmful parasites, as well as a way to improve metabolism.
For swimming in tanks can not use cold water (below 14 degrees). It is also impossible to water animals with such water from a hose even in hot weather, especially small ones, because there is a risk of catching a cold. Sometimes in the village on private farms arrange puddles. Water is poured into the hole with sand, where animals can wallow.
Monthly male piglets, which are intended for fattening, need to be neutered. The procedure can be carried out earlier - in 2-3 weeks. About this in the article "On castration of pigs."
Rest takes a lot of time from a growing organism, therefore, in order for a pig to sleep well it should not be disturbed by anything. He must be healthy and well fed.
Feeding pig offspring
The food that feeds the young after weaning is juicy food, green grass, which is abundant in summer. In winter, they are replaced by hay and long-stored roots. Also in addition is boiled potatoes and grain concentrates. You can add to the diet piglet hay shavings and oil cake. The table shows that dairy products are still present in the diet:
Drinking water must be fresh. It changes up to 4 times a day, and all troughs are cleaned in a timely manner so that the food in them does not turn sour.
If monthly piglets were taken away from the sow, then they should be gradually prepared for the ration of 1 kg of milk or skim milk, 1 kg of boiled potatoes, 0.5-1.5 kg of root crops. To this add a mixture of grains (concentrate) - 0.7 kg, silage - 0.5 kg, grass meal - 0.1 kg. In the summer in the first place grass - up to 2 kg. In 4 weeks a piglet needs 15 g of table salt.
Animal help: shots
Sometimes animals need help in treating diseases or prevention. They are given vaccinations, put drugs for anemia and vitamins. We will tell where to give an injection to the piglets, as this can help in emergency situations. For these procedures, use syringes or special devices for injection.
All drugs have their own methods of administration - subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous - this is the most common. The last of these options requires certain skills, and the first two can be done by a farmer who has little experience. The place for the injection should be treated with a solution of iodine and cut out wool on it.
To make a pig subcutaneous injection, you need to find a place where fiber and thin skin are developed. Fit the thigh from the inside, and the young are comfortable to put behind the ear.
In these places you need to slightly pull the skin. It turns out like a triangle. In its lower part, you can do the injection. The needle should enter easily under the skin.
Piglets injections intramuscularly made in places with developed muscles. This is usually the area of the buttock, the upper part of the back leg of the animal. The needle is injected perpendicular to the body. The drug must be administered quickly, and then the injection site is treated with iodine.
Reasons for using injections
We have figured out how to make the injection, now let's consider what the injections are for and what drugs are used.
Vaccines for vaccinations - this is the standard immunization of pigs. A veterinarian will help you create an individual schedule. It usually includes vaccinations against anemia, rickets, plague, against erysipelas, as well as against salmonellosis and against worms.
For some diseases, pigs are given antibiotics. Monthly weaned piglets and older individuals may be affected by dysentery, which is treated by injection and magnesium sulphate.
Injections of antibiotics are indicated in the treatment of salmonellosis, pig pasteuriasis, atrophic rhinitis. Respiratory diseases in piglets are treated primarily with this type of medicine.
Pigs can also be given injections of anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. It can be "Ketovet", "Fortis", "Stressguard". More often assigned to adults during diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Can be used as antipyretic and analgesic agents.
If injections are given in combination with antibiotics, then infections of the respiratory tract can be treated, as well as purulent-necrotic lesions of the extremities (lower divisions).
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