A well-constructed pig housing makes it possible to create ideal conditions for the effective keeping of livestock of domestic animals. Such an object should have comfortable rooms with a favorable microclimate, as well as an equipped area for walking individuals in the open air. The construction is carried out in accordance with current construction and veterinary-sanitary norms. In this article we will examine in detail the necessary preparatory work and all stages of construction.
Choosing the right place for the construction of structures
Efficient pig farming at home requires a solid structure for animals. First of all, the pen is under construction should be located away from residential structures, so that the unpleasant smell that comes from pigs does not reach the houses.
The pens should be placed on hard gravel ground. You also need to check in advance the proximity of utilities, wastewater and submarine water. The premises for pigs must be qualitatively protected from the influence of the penetrating wind, therefore it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of the built-up area.
Pigs have a special sensitivity to moisture, so there should not be swamped soils on the selected area. A very important condition for the construction of a shelter for animals is to place it away from drinking water sources. A place for permanent walking individuals need to equip in the immediate vicinity of their homes.
Determining the size of the building for animals
Before the direct construction of the covered part of the pen, it is necessary to carry out the calculation of its dimensions. It depends on how many and what individuals need to be placed on the object. For the effective maintenance of pigs should provide a comfortable stall. On average, for one animal without offspring, a machine with an area of 2 to 5 square meters is required. Boxing for piglets provides 1 square. m for each.
According to the norms, the cell size for sows is 5 square meters. m. However, the hot season pigs are better tolerated in the summer pen. Boars-producers are contained in single boxes, an area of 6 square meters. m
The height of the stall is made 1.8-2 m, so that it is larger than the dimensions of the animal itself to prevent the pig from crossing the fence. When planning a paddock, space should be allocated for free passage between the boxes in the amount of 1.5-2 m. When creating a building design, you need to calculate the size of the windows; according to the rules, the sum of their entire area should not exceed the floor area.
In the open part of the pen it is necessary to provide a place where the pigs will shelter from direct sunlight. For this purpose, a couple of trees should be planted on the territory. To provide artificial shade and protect animals from bad weather conditions it is required to make a canopy of tarpaulin.
Division of a structure into various compartments
For proper placement of individuals in the pigsty, a carefully planned scheme is created that takes into account the main features of the quality content of each pig. So, the warmest compartments are allocated for sows with calves.
It is very important to provide separate placement of boxes for the boar-producer and sow. When choosing materials from wood for mounting partitions (1.5 m high), give preference to hard woods (oak, maple, elm).
A metal or wooden pig feeder is attached to the fencing wall nearest to the aisle. It is necessary to mount the drinker with constantly clean water. Brick and block rooms are sheathed with boards for additional heating. Also be sure to plan the location of the compartments so that the passage between them is always spacious.
The arrangement of the summer pen for pigs is carried out with the help of metal or concrete pillars driven into the ground.
This site is located on the side of the entrance to the covered part of the pig pen. For reliable fencing steel mesh is used, which should be dug in and pulled well, as animals can dig it up and crawl out of the closed area.
Materials and tools for building construction do-it-yourself
After the development of the project and taking into account all the additional costs for the construction of the structure, it is necessary to make a detailed estimate, based on the estimated dimensions of the future premises. To build a convenient pen for pigs, you need a number of materials:
- for installation of the bases - cement, sand and crushed stone;
- for building walls - brick and wood;
- for roofing - metal and shingles, slate, corrugated;
- for external thermal insulation - mineral wool, foam plastic, roofing felt, shingles;
- for heat insulation - galvanized thin metal or roofing material.
It is impossible to build a pig pen alone without the use of special tools. For a durable fixture materials required to prepare nails, screws, screws. During installation work, it is impossible to do without the use of an electric drill, perforator, electric saw, as well as a bayonet, a hammer, a hacksaw, a screwdriver, an ax.
For the construction of partitions are perfectly suitable various scrap materials and durable metal pipes. When installing boxes for wood pigs, choose the strongest breeds. For additional needs and finishing work requires the presence of a building film, measuring tape, spatulas, brushes, rollers.
Step-by-step instructions for building a do-it-yourself facility
Before you make a corral, you need to consider the mode and nuances of care for pigs.
After studying the entire theoretical part, you can begin to build a pen to accommodate the pigs. At the construction site should remove all excess garbage, materials and tools. After that, you need to remove a couple of centimeters of soil, and to designate the perimeter of the future structure, drive in pegs and pull a rope between them.
Assembling a do-it-yourself construction for pigs includes the following steps:
- construction of the foundation of concrete mortar and masonry;
- device walls;
- roof construction;
- floor covering device.
At the final stage of the construction of the pen, an outdoor canopy for pig walking in the summer season is established. Reliable and durable material is necessary for the installation of floors, as the animal can gnaw or break it.
In this material, we describe in detail the features of the installation of animal pen, and about the construction of the pigsty can be found in the article "Building a pigsty with your own hands."
The construction of the paddock begins with the laying of a quality foundation. The optimum view for the construction of a solid structure will be a tape-like foundation. First you need to mark the area and dig around a trench 60-70 cm deep. Then the formwork is mounted and a sand pad is made, the thickness of which is about 20 cm. Roofing material is laid on the bottom and walls and the concrete solution is poured. To effectively protect the concrete strip from the seasonal movement of the soil, it is necessary to reinforce it.
Pouring the solution is carried out with a slight slope, so that excessive moisture can flow by itself. Along the edges, the foundation of the paddock is compacted with clay or asphalt. The base is made about 30 cm high above the ground. Cover the base to protect it from moisture.
The installation of the walls of the pig pen should be started no earlier than 14 days after laying the foundation. During this time, the concrete will gain the required strength.
Installation of the walls of the object
Materials for the construction of the walls of the paddock are chosen warm, repelling moisture. For this perfect brick, foam and aerocrete, wood. The construction of the blocks is one of the most preferred cost and strength characteristics.
The thickness of the walls is determined depending on the climate of the area. The outer side should be insulated and covered with waterproof paint, the inner side should be trimmed with boards and plaster and then whitened.
The expediency of mounting the pen is that in the summer time pigs need a large amount of fresh air and sunlight, as with their lack of animals, catarrhal and infectious diseases often trouble them.
The ceiling should be raised to a height of at least 2 m from the floor, trim it and whiten it. You also need to leave openings under the windows, through them will be carried out ventilation in the pen.
In the wall, which is opposite the entrance, a transom is made - for convenient cleaning of the pen. Due to the special sensitivity of pigs to drafts, there should be a complete lack of cracks in the openings.
An important step in the construction of a pig pen is the installation of a roof. This part of the structure will protect the building from various atmospheric phenomena. Competently designed and well-built roof ensures good health of adult pigs and piglets.
If you do not need the construction of an attic to store different materials, then the roof is better to perform a shed, which increases the chance of its impermeability to rain and snow.
As a roofing material for a covered pen is best to use slate. When installing the roof, it is imperative to provide for ventilation holes. To ensure the required thrust at the base of the ventilation pipe, a special exhaust device must be mounted.
Laying insulating materials under slate or metal tile will allow you to save heat-saving functions of the roof of the paddock.
Installation of flooring
The main characteristics of the future floor should be foreseen when creating the project of a pen. Correctly made coating will allow quick cleaning of contaminants. One of the most reliable options is considered to be a solid concrete floor, but pigs can freeze on it during sleep.
In the pen for animals, it is preferable to mount a combined floor covering, to lay a place for sleep with boards, and to concrete the remaining section.
Blanks of boards should be selected from hardwood, which show good resistance to constant moisture. Most often used for mounting oak or larch. Be sure to make a slight slope of the flooring to ensure the flow. Often, the concrete surface is poured with a slope to the outer wall.
Pens equipment by feeders and drinkers
Pigs for pigs should be equipped with feeders for good nutrition and drinkers. For mounting feeders used wood, metal or galvanized sheets. It is also possible to cut a metal or asbestos-cement pipeline into two parts.
The pig feeder is made about 40 cm wide and not more than 25 cm deep. To prevent the pig from throwing feed out of the tank, the back wall is placed at an acute angle to the floor and runs just above the front wall. In each box we equip 2 feeders that hold 30 liters. The drinking bowl is installed opposite.
For open pens, troughs made of metal or wood are well suited, and in covered pens, drinkers are arranged. Usually cup or nipple. The water in them all the time should be clean, and the floor covering next to them - dry. For an effective weight gain, it is necessary to provide the animal with constant access to the drinker and the feeder.
In the articles "About drinking bowls for pigs" and "Types of pig feeders" you will find a lot of additional information.
Organization of ventilation and plumbing
To ensure the quality of pigs with fresh air and clean water, it is necessary to install ventilation holes and install water supply. In the premises of the pen with a small area there will be enough several windows and an exhaust opening in the ceiling.
Ventilation of large boxes is carried out with the help of professional equipment. It is important that the air is constantly circulating. In the summer, it is necessary that the air flow was more intense.
The water supply system is installed nearby with a pen for the quick delivery of fresh drinking water to the pigs, which ensures compliance with sanitary and environmental standards.
Thanks to this, a farmer can save time and effort. Each box of the pen should be equipped with a quality drinker with free access to it for cleaning.
Lighting and heating
In the warm season, the lighting is provided with ordinary windows. However, in winter there is little natural light, so lamps should be installed around the pen. The illumination of each box is adjusted individually.
For example, sows with calves require 15 lux of light, lighting in the pen is provided for 18 hours in winter. When fattening animals need light 6-8 lux. The turn-on time is 12 hours in winter. In the summer due to the longer daylight hours, time decreases.
Basically, the structure is erected without heating, since the pigs independently produce a sufficient amount of heat. But you should cover the walls of the pen with additional insulating layer. It is necessary to close all the cracks in the pigsty and constantly maintain a comfortable microclimate for animals. In large rooms, the required temperature is provided by means of a gas boiler, stove, steam heating, and electric heaters.
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