Now we will together figure out how to build a barn for pigs with his own hands. The complexity of the work depends on the number of heads, because the maintenance of a large number of animals requires a lot of space and competent arrangement. After reading the article, you will learn how to build a large pig complex, and how to build a small barn (flock) for piglets. We will help you find a place, deal with sizes and materials, and also give instructions for independent work.
Basic requirements: factors affecting quality
To understand how to make a barn for pigs, you should remember one rule: regardless of its size, it is important to take into account all the quality factors of such a pigsty. First you need to learn how to properly arrange a pig farm and what places for it to choose not worth it. Further, the construction will have to decide on the design of the foundation and interior decoration.
In large pig houses (for 50 heads and more) you will have to think over the ventilation and heating system. In small ones, it is necessary to warmly insulate walls and floors, and then determine the location of the windows. The minimum temperature allowed in the complex is 12 degrees (not lower), and the humidity should not exceed 75%.
The next stage of construction will be the layout of the lighting, consisting of day (natural) and night (artificial). In addition, it is recommended to equip the site with a canopy for walking piglets.
If you can take into account all the above aspects of the construction of the pigsty, you get a high-quality and reliable pen for pigs.
Determine the place under construction
How to build a pigsty with your own hands, so as not to violate the sanitary and veterinary rules and not to cause discontent among neighbors, special documents will tell.
It is especially important to take into account the size of the pen and correlate them with the area of the site. About the rules of construction of pig farms and their distance, you can learn from the article "Rules and regulations for the maintenance of pigs." But, do not forget to take into account such criteria as windiness and slope of the soil, because unpleasant smells and sewage can serve as a reason for the discontent of your neighbors.
Another point, which is desirable to consider when building a small pigsty, and always when building large pig farms - the proximity of the water source. The need for a water supply system in a stable, is dictated by the high need of gilts for liquids and obligatory wet cleaning.
So, when choosing a site for a pigsty, be guided by its dryness, calmness and distance from residential buildings.
It is recommended to begin construction of a pigsty with the calculation of its area. This allows you to calculate the consumption of materials and their cost.
Even the size of the mini pigsty should be estimated, taking into account the smallest area of one machine (2.5 sq. M), their total number and area of paddock for walking (8-10 sq. M).
If you are going to do a large-scale breeding, the area of the pigsty should be calculated based on the standards given in the table:
Despite the above data, the use of different size machines in practice is not very convenient. Therefore, during construction, an average minimum depth of compartments is chosen - 3 m, and placed along a longitudinal corridor 1-2 m wide. Such a system is much more economical and more practical from the point of view of heating, ventilation and lighting.
It should be remembered that the dimensions indicated above do not include the dimensions of the internal inventory and paddocks. The area of the latter can be calculated using the table:
Working with the data is not at all difficult; it is enough just to multiply the rate given in the table by the number of pigs from the group.
Selection of materials
The project of the pigsty is always based on its size. So when choosing materials, this criterion remains the main one. If you are making a small pen for piglets, then preference can be given to an easily accessible and inexpensive material. For example, wood or plywood. They are easy to replace when worn, and working with them is not at all difficult.
If you are building a large pig farm, then the material should be chosen appropriate: high-quality and expensive. In this case, brick, concrete, metal and slate are perfect, as they are durable and more resistant to moisture. But the construction costs are high, so such pigsty erect only when the content of more than 40 heads.
But, no matter how high-quality the material, during the construction of the barn it is necessary to use external heaters, since the piglets do not tolerate cold and drafts. As a heat insulator, well suited plates of foam or mineral wool, which sheathe the walls of the pigsty.
A little bit about the types of foundation
When building a pigsty with your own hands, it is important to properly lay the foundation. Then, the new building will turn out strong and durable. Usually put on the frame, at least, pile or columnar. Its depth does not exceed 70 cm, and the form is poured only around the perimeter.
The only dilemma that can arise is to use a monolithic or composite basis. If you make a frame of foam blocks, the construction will take less time. But the monolithic foundation is cheaper. But whichever of these materials you choose, do not forget about waterproofing.
Groundwater is a factor that, if ignored, could lead to the erosion of the foundation. A good option, which helps to avoid the intake of moisture from the soil, is to smear the frame with bitumen mastic, and to lay a layer of waterproofing on top. We told you about creating a foundation for a pigsty building, and how to make it cover, you can find out in the article “What can you do in the pigsty floor?”
Choosing raw materials for the walls
It is believed that the most suitable materials for the construction of a pigsty are foam concrete, expanded clay concrete or aerated concrete. Working with them is very easy, as they are easy and inexpensive. But all of the above raw materials are very afraid of moisture, so after the construction of such walls, they must be quickly sheathed with a water-repellent material, for example, polycarbonate sheets.
In some areas, shell rock is used for the construction of pig houses - it is an excellent natural material that has only one drawback - low prevalence. The brick is also infrequently used, despite its strength, it is cold and expensive.
The next material for building pig houses is wood. It can be arbolit, parallel bars or sleepers, as well as plywood and OSB. All of them are distinguished by a high degree of thermal insulation and moisture resistance. As for the height of the walls, it is standard: 1.7-1.9 m without an attic, and about 2.5 m with an attic (rarely erected, since it has no practical sense).
Features of the ceiling in the barn
The main thing that you should rely on when choosing materials for a pig farm is to create a warm room. Therefore, the construction of a ceiling in a pig shed is not complete without creating a thermal layer (for example, from mineral wool). Remember that the cost of insulating the ceiling always pays off due to lower heating costs.
As for the type of overlap, it all depends on the number of livestock. Small barns, up to 8 square meters. m, you can cover a shed roof. Duo-pitch options make sense only in large pig houses, designed for 50 heads or more. With such a large-scale construction, the cost of overlap is equalized.
The best option for the roof is slate. However, everything depends on financial opportunities. But we should not forget that pigs are heat-loving animals. Therefore, choosing another option for overlapping, for example, roofing felt, think about its low thermal insulation properties and the upcoming costs for additional insulation.
Installing windows: recommendations and rules
Deciding to make a pigsty, it is important to think about the lighting system. Of course, pigs do very well without natural light, but its absence will lead to additional costs for electricity. For this reason, large windows are installed in the barn to let the sun's rays through.
The main thing to remember is: the total area of the frames should not be larger than the floor area, otherwise there will be a bust with the room lighting. Therefore, when building a pigsty for two or three piglets, only 1 window is installed. The average height of the openings is 1.5 m. The frames are chosen of such a type that the upper half of them open up, creating natural ventilation.
As for the windows themselves, they should not let the cold through. If you choose a wooden frame, the frames are installed in two layers - for better thermal protection. But modern farmers prefer to put plastic, since double-glazed windows are most practical, it is easier to care for them.
Doors and gates
The construction of a pig farm is completed with the installation of doors and gates. When choosing a material, you should be aware of its heat transfer capabilities. Internal doors leading to the pen, it is better to make wood or metal upholstery. When building large pig houses, a tambour is mounted on 50 heads and higher, especially in cold regions of the country.
If you are preparing a barn for pigs in the country, it is enough to install one gate. On large pig farms, the number of entrances is unlimited, but is calculated based on the number and type of livestock. Thus, in the uterine divisions, one passage is required for every 15 sows, while in the premises for boars one gate per 10 animals is installed.
The distance in the aisles depends on its specificity:
- 80-100 cm in boar machines;
- 70-75 cm in the remaining machines;
- 85-90 cm between the doors in the household. premises;
- 150-160 cm at the gate for the run.
The height of the openings is standard - 200-220 cm, but when installing the cableway, it is increased to 240 cm and higher. Another rule required for the installation of doors and gates: they must open outwards.
Arrangement of machine tools
The internal division of the pigsty into 2 heads or 200 pigs, differs only in the number of machines. As for the material for construction, his choice rests on the budget. It is optimal to acquire steel grates, slag blocks or concrete for walls.
But in a more budget version, wood is also suitable, especially if you build a pigsty for 2 heads with your own hands. But remember that wood is not practical material, and pigs often gnaw through such walls. If you put trellised walls, then the gaps between the slats should be no more than 5.5 cm in the departments for piglets, and not exceed 10 cm in the remaining compartments.
If you are going to install a walking platform and install a shed, then you must leave a passage for the pigs to move, at least 90 cm wide. The site itself is fenced with steel mesh stretched over metal or concrete pillars.
Installing the grid on the walking area, remember that its bottom edge should be dug into the soil, otherwise the animals will dig and chose to be free.
Stocking tools and materials
As a rule, no one will independently build a pig farm, but to build a mini-flock without the help of specialists is quite real. In construction, you will need materials for the foundation: sand and cement, as well as moisture-absorbing foam or roofing material for wall cladding. In addition, logs and boards will be useful.
To cover the roof, you can use slate or tile. Some craftsmen choose sandwich panels, but installing them will require additional investments (roofer services and construction costs for the foundation). As for the tools, the construction of the pigsty cannot do without:
- saws or hacksaws;
- an ax.
In addition, gathering yourself to install a pigsty, do not forget to stock up on nails and screws.
Stages of construction
The process of building a pigsty consists of five main stages and several related ones. The first thing to do is decide on the place. Further, the site is marked and the excavation is dug. The next step is to fill the foundation, install a blind area and lay a moisture-repellent layer.
The second stage is the construction of walls. Here it is important to take into account the climate of the region and the selected material so that the room does not turn out too cold. For example, the thickness of brick walls should be 50 cm, and wooden, only 25 cm. The third step towards the completion of construction is the laying of the ceiling and roof, warmed with heat insulators.
The fourth point of the plan is laying communications and laying the floor. Here it is important to observe the above recommendations and remember that the piglet does not suit flooring with large bars or a concrete sloping screed. Adult pigs are not so picky, but making mixed floors is not the most rational idea.
The last, final stage of construction is the arrangement of a walking platform and a shed. On this, the construction work comes to an end, and it remains only to equip the pigsty and run into it the first inhabitants.
Finally made and suitable for living boars and sows, you can consider the barn only after the completion of the interior decoration. Read more about what and how to install inside the building, read the article "The arrangement of the pigsty." But, nevertheless, let us briefly say that in order to complete the construction it will be necessary to create a system of artificial lighting, ventilation, heating and water supply.
Remember that for the pig is extremely whimsical and the slightest drafts can cause colds. Also, it should not be overlooked that the pigs need a lot of heat, so they install special lamps in their machines that produce heat. In addition, the installation of an additional furnace may be required for heating the premises in cold weather, especially in those parts of the country where low temperatures prevail.
As for the decorative finish, we recommend that you choose a light-washable and moisture-resistant material that does not suffer with regular cleaning and disinfection. But do not forget that pigs do not like bright light, it can cause them attacks of aggression. Therefore, the use of white gamma in the pigsty is undesirable.
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