Existing veterinary rules for pigs are regulated at the legislative level. And even a small private farm must meet the conditions prescribed in the order of the Minister of Agriculture. Compliance with the requirements will help farmers grow healthy pigs, get high-quality meat and even get permission for private trading. We will tell you the main provisions and principles of the decree regulating the relationship of the breeder with the law.
Factors that need to be considered
Some standards of pig keeping are so important that their compliance is regulated by law. For the citizens of the Russian Federation, all of them are registered in the veterinary and sanitary rules for keeping piglets in their personal subsidiary farms (Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation No. 114 dated March 29, 2016). Remember that even if you keep only a few animals, you are not exempt from following these guidelines:
- the premises for pigs must comply with the regulations;
- disinfection measures must be carried out according to an established schedule;
- all animals must be vaccinated on time;
- the terms and standards of feed storage must be observed;
- all compartmentalization points (determination of farm sanitary protection level) must be strictly followed.
The sanitary-epidemiological service will evaluate households of any level according to these criteria, even if you breed pigs “for yourself”. Of course, the requirements for small pig farms are not as stringent as when checking large-scale farms.
Regulations on the number of livestock in private households
There are no strict rules for keeping pigs in personal subsidiary farms in terms of their number, but there are some installations that affect the livestock level. Thus, an important factor in determining how many piglets can be kept in a private sector is the size of the plot.
There are clear rules defined by the state and prescribed by law, which compare the distance from the extreme border of the pigsty to the neighboring plot depending on the number of animals kept. We have collected them in a table, so that it would be easier for you to navigate:
The table helps to visually see that in small private areas it is allowed to keep a small number of pigs. If you are going to breed piglets for sale, then the farm should be located away from residential buildings.
The easiest way to determine the allowed number of livestock is to contact local authorities. This approach will save you from various inconsistencies and save time.
Important factors affecting the size of the livestock in the farm, are the norms of the area for the maintenance of a single animal. About it, further.
Standard dimensions pigsty
Let's talk about the basic requirements for the placement of the pigsty, its size and types. First, piglets should not be shared with other animals: wild or domestic.
Secondly, the premises for pigs are divided into two types: closed or partially open. If you choose the second option, then take care of the canopy over the paddock. Piggy poorly tolerate rain, direct sunlight and drafts - keep this in mind when building. In the article "Construction of pigs" learn the details, continuing the topic.
Inside the corral is divided into machines - the premises where pigs live. Their minimum sizes are also registered in the order of the Ministry of Agriculture and are shown in the table:
The table contains data for individual and group keeping of piglets. But it should be noted that when sharing pigs, we must take care of a high level of farm compartmentalization. Improves the sanitary status of the farm properly organized removal of waste products of pigs.
Floor facilities, ventilation and temperature control
The legislation has developed certain standards for arranging the floor of pig farms. So, it is not recommended to pour concrete floors, as they are too cold for tender pigs. But it is allowed to use reinforced concrete gratings with small gaps (convenient for creating a manure removal system). However, it should be noted that the width between the slats should not exceed 22 mm.
Particular attention should be paid to the device of the ventilation system, especially in the closed pig houses. The problem is that when evaporating, manure not only emits an unpleasant odor, but also emits methane gas that is dangerous for the development and life of the piglets. Lawmakers took care of the silence. According to the veterinary rules in pig farms it is forbidden to use equipment whose volume during operation exceeds 60 dB.
In addition, it is necessary to maintain a certain temperature in the pigsty. For adults - not lower than 12 degrees, for young animals - from 18 to 22 degrees. Humidity should not be below 70% and above 85%. Permissible air flow rate - 0.7 m / s.
If you do not comply with these standards, then the pigs are reduced immunity, weight loss, inhibition in the development and exacerbation of viral infections.
Sanitary standards relating to staff and the rules for disinfection
To breed piglets did not create problems, it is necessary not only to follow the rules for keeping pigs, but also to disinfect in a timely manner, to monitor the implementation of sanitary standards by staff. This applies to any pig farms and private farms.
The pigsty personnel must have a special costume or clothing used to maintain the herd. After completion of the work, it must be cleaned and sanitized. A work suit should not leave the barn, if there is no compelling need. Also, employees of the farm should not enter the pigsty, if it does not require care for pigs.
According to the regulations, complete disinfection of the barn should be carried out at least once a year, but not more often than once a month. The procedure consists of processing the premises, feeders and inventory disinfecting solution. lime limework of all walls and partitions between machines is carried out. After treatment, the premises are not used for 5 days, after their expiration, animals can be returned to the pens.
On sanitation in the stable: laws, the violation of which leads to an epidemic
Regulations on the arrangement of the pigsty was invented for a reason. Failure to comply with them leads to the occurrence of infections that cause the death of the herd and are dangerous to human life. Firstly, the pigs are allowed to give only clean drinking water, and secondly, the cleaning in the machines is carried out at least once every 2 days.
We must remember that cleanliness should be maintained in the rooms where food is stored. If the farm is equipped with automatic feed and water supply systems, such conveyors are cleaned every day. As for the slaughter of pigs, it is carried out according to special regulations and in places remote from the livestock breeding complex.
Particular attention should be paid to the rules of livestock vaccination. Periodic procedures and types of vaccines indicate sanitary service based on an analysis of the situation in the region. Another point that needs to be taken into account is the equipment of the quarantine department - the premises where the vaccinated individuals are kept under the supervision of a veterinarian for 1 month.
The standards of the content of piglets: arrangement
There are several rules prescribed by law regarding the location and arrangement of livestock farms. So, to equip an open farm on the territory of a former cattle cemetery or a sewage treatment plant is strictly prohibited. The very territory of the new economy should be reliably protected from the possible penetration of foreign objects: people, animals, birds, rodents.
As for the choice of materials for the manufacture of the pen, then there are certain rules. First, it must be resistant to high humidity, environmentally friendly and not be afraid of disinfectants. Secondly, anti-corrosion solutions or finishing materials should not release substances harmful to pigs.
At arrangement of machine tools, it is forbidden to use moldy or frozen material for bedding. When cleaning the premises, manure is stored in a separate area, where biothermal disinfection is carried out. All this allows you to maintain cleanliness in the household and prevent the development of parasitic microbes.
The standards of the content of piglets: sanitation
Observe sanitary standards in the barn is extremely important, although their full implementation may cause some difficulties. So, before entering the pigsty should be placed a special mat, treated with a disinfector. In addition, we should not forget about the disinsection, deacterization and disinfestation of the economy. They, like disinfection, are carried out at least once a year.
If you feed pigs not with feed, but use food waste, then it is recommended to boil them for half an hour before serving. Also, we should not forget that all piglets (bred on the farm or brought) must have documents confirming their health.
The legislation stipulates that all pigs must be accounted for and identified. This will simplify the procedures for vaccination and monitoring their health. In addition, accounting for piglets in the farm will help competently carry out the disposal of dead, aborted, stillborn fruits, veterinary confiscates and other biological waste.
Mandatory prevention and diagnosis
Keeping pigs at the farm is hard work, requiring skills and abilities, as well as knowledge of all the norms and rules of sanitary control. Thus, pig breeders must fully comply with quarantine procedures that allow the rejection of individuals exposed to infection or not vaccinated. The minimum quarantine period is 30 days.
During this time, veterinarians examine animals, conduct diagnostic studies, veterinary and preventive and antiepizootic measures. The sanitary and veterinary services of Russia annually carry out such procedures according to a specific scheme, prescribed and ordered for each year.
The plan of anti-epizootic measures of the farm includes the seasonal processing of livestock, disinfection procedures and deratization. Consists of the following items:
- blood sampling for brucellosis and leptospirosis (3 day quarantine);
- detection of tuberculosis and carrying out a coprological study (day 3);
- determining the response to tuberculin and deworming (day 5);
- vaccination against classical plague (day 8);
- vaccination against swine erysipelas (day 18);
- Vaccination against Aujeszky's disease (28 day).
The removal of quarantine takes place at 30-35 days, if no violations or dangerous diseases are detected.
Equipment of the quarantine zone and entry of animals into it
When arranging the quarantine zone, special attention should be paid to its location. The distance from the pigsty should be more than 200 m. The zone should be enclosed with a high fence (from 2 m), and going to the ground by 0.2 m or more. The material for the fence can be solid or mesh, the main thing is that it is easy to establish a separate exit from the farm to the main road.
As for the area of the quarantine zone, it is determined individually and there is no strict regulation for the farm. The average area for quarantining of one animal is 2.18 m. But when arranging compartments for different groups, only solid partitions should be installed. In total, in the quarantine building there are 13 sanitary facilities, the list and area of which are given in the table:
In addition to the above premises, several zones are located in quarantine to accommodate pigs. For example, a compartment for breeding repair sows, placed on prophylaxis before export from the farm.
When new animals arrive, the veterinarian is obliged to check the presence of supporting documentation and its completion. In addition, employees must examine pigs and measure their body temperature.
Quarantine area maintenance
For each incoming batch of pigs allocated individual farm personnel. Other persons not related to the quarantine zone are not allowed to animals. This procedure makes it possible to reduce the risk of infection of employees when an infection is detected in any of the zones and to quickly eliminate it.
If an infection is detected in one of the groups, the personnel must take all veterinary and sanitary measures prescribed by law in the specified order and in full. After the animals are removed from quarantine, disinfection procedures are carried out on the farm. If you do not clean the room, then it is prohibited to deliver new pigs.
Transfer of pigs from quarantine to a pig farm is possible only with the permission of the chief veterinarian and after the quarantine period expires. Remember that while animals are not transferred to a barn for permanent maintenance, their walking is prohibited.
Zoosanitary status of the farm
To determine the zoosanitary status of the farm, there is a procedure - compartmentalization, which we mentioned above. Her goal is to get the farm a favorable sanitary status of the farm.
The decision on classifying the farm to a specific compartment is made by the chief state veterinary inspector of the region. To obtain one of the statuses, the farm management applies for a survey of its farm.
The procedure itself consists of several stages: the preparation of the brigade for verification and its approval, the examination itself (lasts 1 working day), the preparation and issuance of a conclusion. According to the results of this analysis, the farm can receive one of the following statuses:
- insecure farm - 1 compartment;
- poorly protected farm - 2 compartments;
- medium secure farm - 3 compartments;
- farm with high level protection - 4 compartments.
In the compartmentalization scale, 1 is a bad economy, and 4 is a good, credible.
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