Planning the internal structure of the pigsty, it is necessary to consider many factors. So, for the normal functioning of the pig farm, it will be necessary to organize water supply, equip ventilation and heating system, as well as figure out how to regulate the humidity in the piglet room. We will teach you exactly these things, as well as tell you how to deal with pests in the economy, which disinfecting agents are most effective for cleaning, and without what equipment you cannot do.
Basics of construction
Before proceeding to the arrangement of the pigsty, it is necessary to build the building itself. It should be remembered that pigs spend about 75% of their lives in pens, so the room for piglets should be distinguished by reliability and practicality. Details on how to install a pigsty on your own can be found in the article "Doing Your Own Pig Building".
The dimensions and internal delimitation of the premises of the pigsty depend on the goals that you pursue. Thus, a pig for fattening takes up less space than a pair of pigs purchased for breeding. In addition, the construction scheme should include the possibility of expanding the economy. Therefore, make the pigsty obviously more, or leave room for an extension.
The basic rule to remember when building a pigsty is that the room should turn out to be warm, and the materials used should not be afraid of moisture. Do not choose a sloping, blown area for the structure.
Ventilation and its design
In the room for pigs, an important role is played by temperature and the microclimate in general. To ensure it, even in a small pigsty you need to create a ventilation system that allows you to ventilate the room and get rid of toxic secretions.
The simplest ventilation for the pigsty is the holes in the ceiling, which are connected to a pipe that faces the street.
In total there are 4 types of ventilation in the rooms: mine, transverse, longitudinal and corridor. Which of the above options to choose depends on the size of the pigsty and its design. On average, for every 25-30 square meters. m requires a vent 12-15 cm in diameter.
Ventilation systems are divided into natural and forced. In the first version, no additional equipment is required, the main thing is to properly equip the air holes. Forced ventilation in the room is created by specialized equipment. How it all works, you can read in the article "Making ventilation in the pigsty with your own hands."
Peculiarities of manure removal
If you put a mini-pigsty on the site, then you can not worry about the manure disposal system. But on large farms the sewage system is necessary, since it is not possible to manually clean the room from the waste products of pigs by hand.
The system consists of open-type waste trays located along all machines and connected to underground sewer pipes. According to them, waste is drained into the container, installed at a distance of more than 5 m from the main building of the pigsty and on the opposite side from the pig walking area.
If the length of the sewer system exceeds 7 m, then in the places where the pipes reach the surface they put a manhole, which is necessary for cleaning. The material for the manufacture of zhizhesbornik can be wood, brick, stone or concrete. The size of the tank is calculated so that cleaning is done every 30 days.
Remember that waste from household premises should not get into the zhizhesbornik, as they dilute pig manure and it cannot be used for fertilizers.
All waste not related to the waste products of pigs is accumulated in a mud settler 2 meters or more away from the building.
Water supply: equipment and options
The first thing you should know about water supply is a complex system, which is unprofitable to install in mini-pigsty. Process automation requires powerful equipment, the availability of a nearby water source and high costs. And, the main thing is that it is impossible to implement the project on water supply to the premises on your own.
If you still need to bring the water supply system to the pigsty, then for this purpose you will have to purchase a water-lifting device. It can be a piston, centrifugal, vortex or any other powerful pump. High-performance electric pumps such as AP, EPL or EEC are very popular.
To create the necessary supply of water, small water-pressure columns are installed at the site, from which the liquid is redistributed through the water dispenser. But some companies are already producing powerful water-lifting pumps that do not require the installation of a sump. For example, systems VU-530 or VU-765.
The first system is used for water intake from open reservoirs, the second installation is intended for immersion in wells and boreholes.
The value of the lighting system
In the pig industry, this value of the UV light is given special attention, since a lack of light can cause many diseases. Moderate exposure to the sun helps prevent rickets and accelerates the development of piglets. But it is worth remembering that direct sunlight is harmful to pigs.
The correct lighting system in the pigsty helps speed up the growth of pigs. A lack of light leads to low sexual activity and reduced reproductive functions. For this reason, pig farms working on pig breeding should be covered 18 out of 24 hours a day.
At the same time, animals kept in dimly lit enclosures gain mass faster. It has been proven that the difference in weight between piglets raised under bright light and between individuals raised in dimly littered pig houses is 15%. Therefore, premises for fattening pigs are recommended to cover no more than 12 hours.
Lamps for lighting and their placement
Sunlight in the pigsty is filled by windows. When planning them, use the proportions of 1 m of glazing per each meter of the floor. You should also consider the color of the walls and their reflectivity.
For example, a smooth light wall reflects about 85% of the light, gray walls in a room give off only 35% of the rays falling on them, and the dark surface absorbs 80% of the sun.
That is why the color of the overlap and partitions in the room is important when arranging the pigsty. If you are worried about the complexity of cleaning, you can use panels for plating. They are easy to clean and are not afraid of moisture. As for the artificial lighting system, the lamp is recommended to be placed directly above the machines with pigs.
In the field of infrared lighting, lamps IKZ-220, DRVE-200 and IKZK-220 (or 250), ultraviolet illuminators PRK-G, PRK-2, LER, EUU-15 or 30 are very popular. The optimal location of the height of the lamps in the premises of the pigsty is 1 meter.
But remember that infrared or ultraviolet lighting can not be used continuously, so every 1.5 hours it is recommended to take a break of 30-40 minutes.
Maintaining temperature: infrared heaters
So that the pigs do not hurt, develop and gain weight, one should maintain a normal microclimate in the room. In the summer, it is enough not to create drafts in the pigsty. In winter, special heating equipment is required. The optimal temperature for piglets is 26 degrees, for other groups the norm is 16-20 degrees.
To make up for this difference, in premises for keeping pigs you can install underfloor heating, on an electric or water base. Such a system will help get rid of moisture. The rest of the pigsty to maintain the thermal regime should use one of the modern heating systems.
Infrared heaters are very popular, the principle of operation of which is similar to solar radiation. The systems are used both for heating individual sections and for the whole room. Heat from infrared devices comes in the form of rays and is transferred to the selected pigsty zone.
Heating systems of pig houses: air, pipe and cannon
In sow and boar rooms, blower generators are often installed. They increase the temperature in the pigsty, dispersing the air masses.
But, their disadvantage is that moisture leaves the premises of the pigsty. Yes, and in the service they are quite whimsical. But conventional pipe heating is easy to operate. At the same time they emit a large amount of heat at very low energy consumption.
However, the temperature generated by the generators is difficult to adjust. Yes, and install "constant heating" in the pigsty alone - too much risk.
When gun heating is the same to regulate the level of heat in the premises of the pigsty is easier, and maintenance does not require special skills. However, heat guns take moisture from the air, which is a minus. In addition, the temperature they create is not kept at the same level, so their work has to be constantly regulated.
Air humidity: acceptable indicators of the consequences of their violation
Building a barn, you can not worry about such a thing as a microclimate. But, in a pig farm, this factor is fundamental. The humidity of the climate in the premises of the pigsty is influenced by the level of incoming air from the outside, evaporation from animals and surrounding surfaces.
In a mini-pigsty it will be easier to regulate the microclimate, since there are fewer factors affecting this indicator. The standards of water content in the atmosphere, established by scientists for different groups of animals, we present in the table:
According to the above data, you can see that the humidity threshold in the premises of the pigsty should not fall below 40%. In addition, piglets and sows tolerate high humidity worse than boars. Research scientist Alekseeva G.I. showed that at high humidity (95-98%), in pigs hemoglobin decreases by 11% and the number of erythrocytes decreases by 9%.
To remove excessive moisture in the pigsty, one should well ventilate the room. It is most convenient to do this with the help of automated microclimate creation systems.
Complete pig houses
As soon as the pig farm is completed and its interior is finished (walls, roof, floor, machine tools), equipment starts to be delivered into the room. The main package pigsty include:
- drinking bowls;
- sun beds;
- disinfection and disinsection;
- cleaning inventory.
Install feeders and drinkers immediately before entering the machine. But, it should be noted that mineral supplements are given to pigs in a separate vessel.
In the mini-pigsty, where 1-3 pigs are kept, it is enough to put a trough 70 cm in length, 40 cm in width and 20-25 cm in depth. If the piglets on the farm are larger, the size of the feeder is increased by 20 cm for each animal.
It is recommended to choose containers with partitions, as in a large trough pigs begin to splash, hence create dirt in the pigsty and spoil the water and feed. The litter should be formed from quality materials.
Disinfection of premises: means and methods
To get rid of bacteria at home can be a chemical method or without the use of chemicals. The first method is the treatment of the floor plate, walls, partitions and the ceiling of all the premises of the pigsty with a special disinfector. Good and safe means for disinfection can be considered "Virocid", "DM SID-S", "Caustic", DEKKONTEZ ".
There are modern ways to get rid of harmful bacteria in the pigsty, allowing you to not use chemistry on the premises. Therefore, they are less harmful to employees and animals. These include:
- mechanical method;
- hydrotechnical devices with heat treatment function;
- ozone treatment.
If none of the methods of cleaning the premises of the pigsty is suitable, you can use tools without chemical components. For example, "LYUBISAN", which is a biological drug. It eliminates microbes, fungi, viruses, and is also an excellent antiseptic and bactericidal agent.
Rodents - one of the main misfortunes in the barn. If you are tortured by these pests, then we will tell you how to get rid of rats in a pigsty in a variety of ways. The first method is chemical. It consists in the use of special preparations containing rat poison: "Difenacin", "Ratindan", "Zookumarin", "Penolatsin", "Ratid" and "Goliath".
The second way to catch rodents - mechanical, is to use traps. In a specialty store you will find a variety of options for glue-based or trapped models. But the disadvantage of the method is that rats and mice eventually reappear in the premises of the pigsty.
The third method is the use of an ultrasonic repeller in the room. This modern device makes a sound that negatively affects rats, but does not harm humans or pets. The main thing is to choose the optimal range that affects the roofing, otherwise, the mice will hide in the roof of the pigsty, and return as soon as you turn off the system.
In large pig houses, household supplies are stored in a separately equipped room, with an area of 4-5 square meters. On mini-farms, they will equip a small outbuilding (shed) where the working equipment and cleaning products are put.
As for the equipment of the utility room, they store buckets, scrapers, shovels, forks, additional feeders, work gloves, brooms, rags and other items that help in working at the pig farm.
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