A variety of systems and methods of keeping pigs are part of the technology for growing meat and fat. They are designed to create optimal conditions for a quick set of piglets muscle mass while maintaining their physical health. Pig breeding methods used in small farmsteads may differ significantly from those common in large-scale livestock farms. Although the overall goal is to get quality standards for pork.
Properly equip the pigsty
Owners of a small farm specially build or refit sheds for their pets, which can contain from 1 to 10-15 fattening pigs.
The maintenance of pigs in such premises is not very difficult, the main thing is to comply with sanitary and hygienic standards and provide each fattening pig at least 2.5 square meters. m total square paddock or individual machine.
You can divide the barn into several machines or leave one common room in which the pigs will be able to move freely, eat and rest.
If the owner of a small private farm plans to breed dairy pigs, which will be sold at one and a half to two months of age, then the territory of the pigsty should be divided into separate machines for producers and their offspring.
Main breeding methods for piglets
Next, we will talk about how to keep pigs in a small farm. If the livestock breeder decided to professionally engage in breeding of piglets, he should provide them with the most comfortable conditions for development and growth.
We must immediately determine what method of keeping animals for him is the most acceptable. At present, there are three main ways of breeding piglets and producers:
- free-walking content;
- without content
Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages associated with the size of the pig-breeding complex and the presence of a sufficient amount of territory that can be used for walking. Farmers pay attention to environmental conditions, and for large-scale production, the main indicator is profitability and maximum reduction in the cost of pork.
Provide the possibility of walking
For the southern regions of our country, the optimal content of pigs is free-walking. At its application around the pigsty settles down in the freezing zone divided into compartments, and the piglets have free access to it. For them are equipped with special manholes on swinging valves connecting the walking platform with the machine.
Piglets have the opportunity to go out into the fresh air whenever they want. Thus, they develop resistance to infectious diseases, strengthens the immune system.
This method is considered progressive because the pig breeder can easily identify the sick animals that do not leave the pigsty, preferring to be in the dim light.
With the machine-walking method of keeping the exits from the machine make dense, and the farmer has the opportunity to independently choose the time when the pigs should be released to fresh air.
With a breederless way of keeping pigs from the moment of farrowing to slaughter, they are kept in pens and are not released into free space. This may cause certain problems with their health, but is commonly used in large livestock farms, in which pigs are kept in high-bay boxes, containers and compartments.
Premises for growers and young
For each sow and her kids you need to prepare a machine with an area of about 5 square meters. m, in which up to the moment of farrowing can be placed at once two pigs.
The content of boars has its own characteristics, since two sexually mature males cannot be kept in the same pen. Because of the natural aggressiveness, they will constantly fight, injuring each other. Therefore, for manufacturers of boars need to equip individual machines with an area of about 3.5 square meters. m
The basics of pig breeding require that in the pigsty (regardless of its size), a reliable system of natural or artificial ventilation is installed, and the humidity of the air does not exceed 70-75%.
Remember that light is very important for the steady growth of pigs. There are certain requirements for pig houses, which should be covered at least 10-12 hours a day (during the day). The light should not be too bright, because it irritates the pigs' eyes, worsening their overall physical condition.
The optimum temperature in the pigsty is 18-20 degrees Celsius, although pigs with no problems withstand temperature drops from 12 to 22 degrees. More details in the article "Peculiarities of keeping pigs at home".
Foreign methods of keeping piglets
When equipping the floor in the pigsty, you can immediately foresee the presence of runoff pits and grooves along which the waste products of pigs will drain into them.
In Denmark, pigs are developed on a removable plastic floor, in which there are numerous slots. The liquid flows into the drain pits, filtering fecal matter, which immediately after harvesting the paddock can be used as fertilizer in the fields. However, with this approach, the care of pigs requires compulsory equipment in the pigsty of stationary heating systems, which is not very profitable for farmers who grow pigs in private homesteads or in the country.
The new Canadian method provides for the maintenance of pigs in the general unheated enclosures that have a thick litter of straw. With this system, fattening piglets constantly lay a new layer of straw on top of the contaminated one. The litter is pressed, and as a result of the rotting process, heat is released.
Litter can be cleaned two or three times a year. This is usually done after slaughter and before transferring to the new piglet the fattening pen. The main disadvantage is the constant presence of unpleasant odors. Also, in the conditions of the harsh Russian winter, it becomes not entirely clear how to care for pigs kept in unheated premises. Read more in the article "On the content of piglets in the winter."
Breeding piglets in breeding pig farms
In large livestock farms, the content of pigs is somewhat different from domestic ones, since it is aimed at maximizing the cost of pork while obtaining as much of this useful product as possible.
As mentioned above, in such enterprises a bezbugulnaya animal breeding system is practiced, and the maintenance and care of piglets is carried out exclusively in special machines, containers, as well as multi-tiered cellular batteries, which can be grouped or calculated for one fattening pig.
In the absence of walking, the hygiene of pigs is significantly improved, the mechanization and automation of production processes are simplified, the labor costs of workers are reduced, and the cost of production is reduced.
But for breeding pigs and boar-producers it is very important to periodically be in the fresh air. This is exactly what the camp system of housing is designed for, when pigs are provided with access to a specially equipped site. Although much more often used for this mobile cells-containers.
In industrial pig breeding, there are three forms of production organization related to the transfer of fattening piglets from one section to another.
Single-phase pig keeping system is the most benign. It is aimed at reducing the stresses that directly affect the rate at which the piglets gain muscle mass.
With single-phase housing, the sow, which stopped feeding the babies with milk, is transferred to the room for single pigs, and the piglets remain in the transformed machine, in which they were born. In it, they are fattened to achieve industrial weight and sent for slaughter. A new pregnant female is placed in the released pen, in which the farrowing is expected in the coming days.
In pig farms with a capacity of 12 or 24 thousand cattle, a two-phase housing system is practiced, in which the piglet is kept in the initial corral for three months (reaching a weight of about 30 kg). After that, it is transferred to the fattening shop, which is associated with certain stress, but gives a serious economic effect.
The most cost-effective content system
Large industrial complexes designed for 54 or 108 thousand heads practice a three-phase system for keeping fattening pigs. Monthly piglets are first moved to the plant for rearing. Here, they are provided with the necessary zoohygiene and nutrition with the most high-quality feed, obtaining the necessary amount of vitamins and microelements.
After a piglet weighs 30 kg, it moves to the fattening workshop, where it is kept until it is sent for slaughter, or selected as a future producer.
On a small home farm, you can also practice one of these pig farming technologies. Beforehand, you should carefully calculate how many and what animals you are going to keep, and also take into account the presence in your pigsty of the required number of rooms for the placement of dairy and fattening piglets, single and pregnant pigs, as well as boar-producers.
Follow the feeding regime
It is very important to maintain a proper diet and make up a diet containing enough nutrient and biologically active substances, vitamins and easily digestible trace elements for pig development.
It is best to use special feed for feeding a pig or boar, which can be purchased at wholesale and retail chains, or you can make your own from grain mixtures by adding additional ingredients. Read the article "On feed for piglets."
Feeding is best done at the same time, dividing the daily ration into several approximately equal portions. Regardless of the method of keeping and breeding, for quick weight gain, the piglets need to be fed 5 to 3 times a day, depending on the age of the animals.
For a two-month-old pig having a weight of about 25 kg, 2-2.5 kg of feed per day is enough, and by five months and a weight gain of 60 kg the daily dose of feed should be increased to 4 kg. By 8 months he can eat up to 7 kg of food per day, and his slaughter weight reaches 120-130 kg.
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