Very often, on farms and backyards, people are forced to provide artificial feeding of piglets. This is done if a pig dies during childbirth, either it has no milk, or there are more newborns than nipples. Of course, no product can replace breast milk, especially colostrum, which the offspring feeds on the first time after farrowing. But there are cases when it is just necessary to provide nutrition to the young, and in full volume.
Conditions for newborns
When a piglet is born, it is considered a newborn for the first ten days. In domestic pigs from 6 to 16 cubs appear, depending on the breed. If it is not possible to keep babies with a sow, then they are placed in a drawer, where warm bedding is laid. Additional information can be obtained in the article "The content of small pigs."
Acceptable air temperature in the room is considered from 28 to 32 degrees. It can be provided by hanging an infrared lamp above the kids. For greater convenience, under the box put a container for collecting urine. Previously in his bottom holes are made.
Ideally, up to three days of age, suckling piglets are fed with colostrum. It is especially important in the first hours after birth. Its composition allows you to fully digest their body. Cubs acquire immunity. However, this product can only be obtained if everything is in order with the sow.
If the piglets are larger than the nipples, then the babies are transplanted to the mother alternately. When the sucking process is neglected, stronger individuals will crowd out the weak, and the latter may not survive.
Sosuns are fed with special mixtures, when the sow does not have enough milk, or she dies during childbirth.
Usually, the young are transferred completely to artificial feeding when the piglet is 5-6 weeks old. Provided that up to this age he fed in a natural way. In addition, the grown-up baby should not weigh less than 8-10 kg.
For adaptation, it is best to keep piglets in the same machine for about 2 weeks, even if there are no sows with them. There should be no drafts, and the air temperature will approach an average of 20 degrees.
Pig does not feed
Let's take a closer look at how to feed piglets without a sow. As mentioned above, a sow may die after farrowing, or there will be more piglets than nipples. There are situations when a pig does not allow cubs to itself.
And if she is aggressive, she can injure her offspring. And we must do everything possible to not let the kids to her. In all these cases, the owner himself has to feed them.
If the sow is friendly, but does not allow piglets to nipples, perhaps it gives her discomfort. Cubs may have fangs that hurt. They need to file.
It so happens that the sow lies down on the stomach, not giving access to the nipples. At the time of feeding you need to try to lay it on its side and put suckers, but be sure to keep the whole process under control.
If the reason for the aggressive behavior of the pig is not found, and it continues to keep the offspring off to itself, then feeding continues with the help of people. The same if sows do not have milk. It can disappear for various reasons and return lactation is very difficult.
Suckling piglets in need of mother's milk can get an artificial mixture that can be prepared independently. It will replace colostrum in the first 3-5 days.
In the first recipe, you should mix with one liter of milk or goat 30 ml of boiled warm water, 20 g of sugar, 1 egg, 10 ml of 1% ferrous sulfate, 1 g of biovestin (biomestine), 2.5 g of aminopeptide. To these ingredients are added 1 ml of vitamins A and D (2 to 1). Before feeding the mixture should be heated to 38 degrees.
The second recipe looks somewhat simpler, but not inferior in quality. 15 g of fish oil, 10 g of salt, 25 g of sugar and 4 eggs are added to one liter of milk. All this is mixed and evaporated in the form of heat.
For safety reasons, milk is best boiled and cooled before mixing with the rest of the ingredients. The mixture must be prepared at once. Souring the product causes loose stools and bloating in suckers. Initially, they are given 50 ml of artificial nutrition 12-16 times per day, approximately every 1.5 -2 hours. Gradually increase the number. It is undesirable to allow overfeeding, as such food is unusual for their digestive tract.
Properly feeding suckling piglets will help ordinary baby bottle with a nipple, or a syringe without a needle. Such options are suitable for small livestock, but what to do if there are a lot of animals and it is difficult to feed each one in turn.
Special design will help to feed all the suckers at the same time. For manufacturing use metal pipes.
A pipe with a diameter of about 80-90 mm and a length of up to 2 m is taken. In it, holes for pipes of smaller diameter (2-3 cm) are drilled every 10-15 cm. Their number is equal to the number of young stock. The length of these tubes should be up to 20 cm. They are welded to the holes.
Plugs are installed on the main pipe on the sides, but another hole is made approximately in the middle for connecting the tank with colostrum. Nipples should be put on thin tubes. The finished design is fixed above the floor so that the kids can reach them freely. Thus, the offspring are fed dairy products from birth until the transition to adult food.
After each meal, all parts of the structure should be rinsed with hot water.
When the pigs did not manage to get natural colostrum in the first days, and if the pig is unable to feed them, then it is necessary to continue artificial milk feeding. Fresh or fermented milk give the young for a few more months. Normally, 1–1.5 liters of this product is laid to the sedans. In the process of growth, the amount is gradually reduced first by 200 ml per decade. After three decades, the reduction occurs by 100 ml.
If piglets are taken away from a sow at the age of two months, feeding with milk, skim milk or whey should be continued artificially. This is still the main food until four months of age, which is gradually being replaced by adult food.
The time weaning calves from a sow, no matter why, is stressful for them. It has a bad effect on weight gain. Transfer babies to lure you need gradually. At 4 months, the weight of the pig should reach 50 kg. Abrupt cancellation of milk in the diet leads to adverse effects, including the death of animals.
Feeding piglets suckers can be artificially, as from 3 days from birth, and starting from two months. Eating occurs as often as possible to produce gastric juice. After weaning the babies from the pig, the amount of food should be reduced by about 30%, and then gradually (10 days) increased. This rule allows not to overload the digestive tract with new foods.
Newborn piglets at the age of 5 days are already able to take additional feed in the form of roasted barley, crushed chalk and bone meal. Water is poured into a separate container and changed several times a day, just like food. From the sixth day on the calf, you can add roasted wheat, corn or pea grains. At this age, teeth appear and animals can chew on such food. On day 8, add porridge and jelly. From the 14th day, carrots and greens are introduced.
Additional food piglet in two months includes:
- food concentrates (700-800 g) in the form of barley, millet, bran, yeast, meal, peas;
- fish and meat and bone meal (10% of the total diet);
- vegetables (carrots, potatoes, pumpkin, beets);
- vitamin-mineral supplements (vitamins A, C, B, E, biotin, folic acid, choline, beta-carotene) and charcoal.
When piglets are raised, solid and solid feeds are ground or finely rubbed. Potatoes are served boiled. The number of meals - 4 times a day, preferably at the same time. From 4 months they are reduced to 2-3 times per day, while increasing the volume by 20%. Green feeds need up to 1.5 kg.
In the warm season, the piglets need to walk. This reduces the stressful situation due to weaning from the sow.
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