In the organization of nutrition, the composition of feed for pigs will be of paramount importance. There is no fundamental difference whether the ready-made version is acquired, or the farmer takes it for independent preparation. In any case, it is important that the feed is balanced, with the right proportions of ingredients. Both options have a good effect on efficiency and productivity in the pig industry, subject to the necessary requirements.
Advantages and disadvantages
For animal breeders, the methods used to increase farm performance play a crucial role. Food at the same time comes first. In this regard, the use of feed for pigs justifies itself in terms of its obvious advantages, which include:
- saving time spent on feeding pigs;
- nutritional balance, allowing to take into account the physiology of pigs and their age characteristics;
- wide variability of choice (you can use not only the full diet, but also a variety of concentrates).
But we can not touch on the fact that the pig feed has some drawbacks. First of all, the disadvantage is its high cost, but cheap options do not become a salvation, since their composition is far from ideal and contains many elements with poor digestibility.
In addition, not always the breeder can choose. Vendors prefer to deal with well-known brands of manufacturers, and this can afford a penny, and is also not very good for feeding differentiation. All this often leads farmers to undertake the production of feed on their own.
Types of finished feed
At the moment breeders of pigs are offered several types of feed with their own specific features. Dry food, which is easy to transport, is very popular, and this greatly influences its demand. The minus of this feed for pigs is that it contains little water, so the animals must be additionally watered with water.
Liquid food on the contrary contains a lot of liquid in its composition, which complicates its transportation. Another feature of this type of food is problems with salivation that occur in pigs after its frequent use. The most balanced composition in wet food. An important feature is its excellent absorption by the piglets in the process of feeding.
Another option for complete feed is granulated, having the appearance of small granules. It is identical to dry food, but differs from it in production technology.
Today, more and more farmers prefer concentrated feed. It is a concentrated feed mixture, which consists of various additives, vitamins and minerals.
Such mixtures can be protein, energy, made from waste and coarse. When feeding pigs feed, there is an improvement in their immune system and an increase in daily weight gain.
Self-cooking versus prepared food
Some farmers believe that the finished version is clearly superior to self-production, while others clearly have the opposite point of view. Both views are correct in their own way, but it is extremely difficult to give an answer, which is better or worse. If you take up the case yourself, the composition of the feed will not be a mystery. In addition, the owner has all the possibilities to change the ingredients at will.
Another thing is that for the manufacture of high-grade feed, you must have access to the food base, necessarily including grain. If something is not your own, then the missing elements have to buy - chalk, grass meal, salt, bran.
In this case, there is no guarantee that the grain purchased, for example, is a natural product that complies with environmental requirements. Another nuance will be the need for pigs of different ages to prepare different versions of the compound feed, changing the composition and proportions of substances. Here, due to inexperience, one can make a lot of mistakes, and this is one of the obviously energy-consuming ones. In this case, it will be much easier and in many respects more profitable to purchase ready-made feed.
The analytical composition of the feed is one of those parameters that are subject to strict regulation by GOST, but in reality the picture looks different. The fact is that each manufacturer has its own manufacturing recipes, although the composition is usually the same, only the proportions differ.
Compulsory elements of the feed will be cereals, they serve as a valuable source of carbohydrates. Their maximum content in corn, barley, wheat or oats are also good. Amino acids, vegetable fats and proteins, which are contained in oil cake and meal, are necessary for muscle growth.
The normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is provided by a normal fiber content. Her sources will be herbal flour and bran. Also in the feed include fish and meat and bone meal as sources of animal protein, plus containing minerals and vitamins premix. This is a prerequisite for the formation of natural immunity in pigs.
The composition of complete feed can be considered on the example of GOST approved PC-57. The table below gives a complete picture of its composition:
The norm of mixed feed laid down in the recipe does not always guarantee weight gain. The reason may be that in order to reduce the price, some manufacturers replace the more expensive and well-digestible components with their counterparts. The price of such substances is lower, but they are absorbed worse, hence the lack of weight gain.
This can explain and justify the need to prepare the feed yourself. There is nothing difficult in this, the main thing is that the recipe should be strictly observed in the manufacture of animal feed for pigs and do not create a risk to animal health.
The lack of balance in the diet will not only lead to the growth of the pig, but also can provoke various physiological disorders in its body.
Start cooking feed for pigs with your own hands should be washed and dried cereals. This must be done so that they are not struck by mold. Next, the grits are crushed, all the other constituent elements are added to them and mixed. The resulting mixture is poured with warm water to form a pasty substance. It is then passed through a meat grinder and the resulting granules, resembling an externally industrial feed, are dried. Upon completion of this procedure, the feed can be considered completely ready for use.
Feed intake rates
On how much feed you need pig for normal growth, depends on the planning costs of the farmer. On average, one pig requires approximately 3 kg of feed per day, this also applies to sows and those that are grown for slaughter. For pigs of the lactation period the daily rate is higher. During the day, one individual eats about 3.6 kg.
To determine how much feed a pig needs, you need to know its age and weight. For example, a six-month-old pig weighing 70 kg gives 1.7 kg per day. However, the total amount of food in the cold is supplemented by root crops (2 kg) and silage (1 kg), and in the summer with fresh grass (4.2 kg) and melons and gourds (3.2 kg).
The duration of fattening is about a year, maximum one and a half. Further maintenance and feeding of the animal loses its economic meaning, since each pig eats a very large amount of feed per day, but stops effectively gaining weight.
It is quite acceptable and even convenient to stock up on food for a long time, for six months or more. In this case, it is also possible to calculate how much the pig will need. Individuals of two to three months old need about 53-55 kg, reaching about 4 months in about 4 months. The consumption for five-month-old animals rises to 85-87 kg, finally, half-year-old pigs already need 93-95 kg. Based on this, it is easy to calculate that about 330-340 kg of feed will be needed per head. And for 6 months you will grow quite plump pig.
In more detail, all described in the article "On feed for piglets."
Formulation for feeding
Often the main purpose of pig breeding is to raise animals for slaughter for meat and fat. In this case, the diet should be designed so that the pigs gain weight and weight as quickly as possible. To achieve this goal, we can offer two versions of compound feed.
The basis of the first are bran (35%) and wheat (25%). It also includes: barley (17%), flour and oats at 10%, lime (1%), salt and premixes at 0.5%.
The second option - enhanced, fattening, its components are presented in the table:
In the second case, more than half of the diet is bran, which is dictated by their high nutritional value. In addition to the indicated components, it is advisable to add various vitamins and minerals to the feed, which will contribute to the fastest weight gain in pigs. Due to this diet, used every day, there is no need to wait for the growth of the mass of pigs to 100 kg in one year. This mark they are able to achieve in a shorter time, and all thanks to the correct diet.
The factor of how much a pig eats, of course, is of no small importance in the process of its breeding. But we should not forget about the quality, because after eating a lot of not the highest quality feed, the animal will not please its owner with weight gain.
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