Proper maintenance, based on balanced feeding of sows, makes it possible to get good offspring. The productivity of animals depends not only on genetics. The main thing lies in the diet of a pregnant female. It is about her that the young get everything they need to build their body. From the article you will learn about the diet of pigs during different periods of pregnancy, as well as after farrowing.
We are waiting for posterity
During the period of pig's gestation, proper feeding should be aimed at obtaining the maximum number of healthy piglets, which by weight will not be lighter than 1.2 kg. In pig farming on farms it is not allowed to reduce breeding condition. In addition, with a balanced diet, the sow will be in good physical condition, and this is the full development of both the babies and the state of the adult itself.
If there are several individuals of the pregnant period, they can be kept together. In the group it is desirable to select pigs that have similar gestational age, weight, age. Also, there is a selection on the nature and state of feeding. This is done in order to be able to use one diet for all, which is convenient. Also aggressive individuals will not be able to harm others.
You can not allow stressful situations and mistreat pregnant animals. Convenient conditions are created at the survey sites. In them, everything is whitened, washed out and cleaned. Be sure to have a fresh litter. Read more in the article "On the breeding and rearing of pigs." Products for feeding pregnant pigs are prepared and stored exclusively fresh.
General information about pregnancy
Feeding pregnant sows varies at this critical time. There are rules that take into account the age of the animal, the duration of pregnancy and the degree of fatness. At the beginning of pregnancy, one diet, and from the middle of the term - another. It is also different in younger and more mature individuals. For example, more nutritious foods are needed first, since this is a feed not only for the embryos, but also for the pigs themselves.
Embryos develop intensively by the end of pregnancy, and during this period more nutrients are required than in the first periods. Germs, it is desirable to obtain proteins, calcium, phosphorus. All this is taken into account in the preparation of the diet.
If it is wrong to feed the sow in the first half of pregnancy, then there is a risk that more embryos will die. Because of this, the individual fertility decreases. With a poor diet in the second half of pregnancy, offspring is born weak and slowly growing.
In different periods of the sow there are three periods of the productive phase:
- pregnancy (from the day of fertilization to 115 days on average);
- lactation (after farrowing and before weaning piglets).
In the phase of gestation, female pigs can be low and suporusal. The first ones are those with a gestation period from 1 to 12 weeks. Since the embryos are very small and there is no lactation, there is no need for an increased concentration of nutrients. However, the feed must saturate the animal.
The second are those with a period of 13 to 16 weeks. In these periods, the volume of feed increases and saturates it with nutrients. That's because the fruits begin to vigorously grow.
Below we consider the options for feeding pigs in different periods of the productive phase in more detail.
Food during the period of fertilization
When the previous pregnancy is completed, the piglets are taken away and lactation does not occur, then the next fertilization period begins. About 5 days should pass from weaning, and the female will go hunting again.
In good condition, the mammary glands do not reduce the mass of feed. If it is raised (4-5 kg per pig per day), then the body will be better tuned to the upcoming fertilization, and conception may well accelerate. This is to some extent dependent on the energy of the animal, which is associated with nutrition.
When fertilization has occurred, it is necessary to ensure peace to the maximum without undue stress in the first 5 weeks. During this period 2.5 kg of feed per day will be sufficient for the sow.
It is undesirable to overstate the amount of food, since it threatens to reduce the size of the nest. Especially for pigs, in which the first pregnancy.
Since the eggs are very vulnerable during this period, because the placenta has not yet formed, any environmental factors can lead to bad consequences. Particularly dangerous substandard food that rot, sour, can lead to intoxication. Lack or excess of vitamins and minerals also leads to negative consequences.
Moderate and abundant feeding
In the period from week 1 to week 12, sows are considered low-sowed and require moderate feeding. No need for abundant nutrition. It must be at the level of the need for life. The embryo in the womb is very small and there is still no milk in the glands of the pig. Fit food enriched with fiber, so that there is a feeling of satiety. Because of hunger, pigs are under stress.
From week 13 to week 16, sows are tall. The amount of feed increases, because the embryos begin to actively develop and grow.
If a pig got pregnant for the first time and continues to grow by itself, then it needs nutrients, both for itself and for the fruits. The need for protein feeds is increasing, but there should not be an excess of protein foods, otherwise the embryos may die. For the entire period of gestation, the individual must add 45-55 kg. Before the third pregnancy, the animal should gain 20-30% more.
If the pig is already adult and the pregnancy is not the first, then it needs to maintain weight, but, in general, the nutrients in the food are less than in the first case. With overeating and with a large increase in weight, you need to increase physical activity. During the period of gestation, the weight of the sow should increase by 45 kg. In the last month of pregnancy, pigs are actively growing fetus. Products that do not cause fermentation and gas formation in the stomach are used. Be sure to have clean water.
The table shows the diet for pregnant sows (example):
More about food
To better understand how to feed a sow, you need to determine the permissible food. To those that are well saturated and give a feeling of satiety, include peas, maize, sugar beets.
Peas, beans, lupins are leguminous plants that contain protein. Feed yeast, fish and meat and bone meal, the reverse is protein. Their presence in the diet will be sufficient in the presence of from 3 to 5%. The main supplier of carotene is carrot, silage is useful, which can be combined. In the summer, of course, an indispensable product that contains a lot of moisture is ordinary grass and other greens.
Cooking food is also necessary. Hay flour is not subjected to heat treatment, and mixed with other feed. So it preserves all the vitamins. Boil potatoes. Raw for pigs, it is not suitable. You also can not give hard cake, chaff, sunflower husks, rotten and frozen feed.
Take everything from mother
If feeding is carried out correctly, the weight of the sow stably increases from cycle to cycle. When food is not enough in the interval from one mating to another, the fecundity of the individual decreases. Also affects and excess feed. It only leads to a set of undesirable weight and does not give the desired offspring.
Normal weight gain pig from cycle to cycle - 12-15 kg. Only then can the emergence of active viable offspring.
In the last week of pregnancy, the metabolism increases. The fruit receives minerals due to trace elements of the skeleton of a sow. During this period, she is provided with the prosperity of fluorine, vitamins A (carrots, silage, and wheat bran) and D. Of the mineral substances, limestone (20-30 g), salt (40-45 g) and chalk (20-30 g) will do.
Further about products and mode
Pregnant pigs feed 2 times a day. Some foreign farms practice one-time feeding, but this is irrational.
Dry food needs to be slightly moistened and given at the same time. When it remains 3-4 days before farrowing, the amount of food is gradually reduced. This prevents the early release of milk.
Sows can be fed with feed based on corn, barley, wheat, oats and soybean meal. You can supplement the diet with mineral feed, which contains 5-8% lysine. In such a meal will be enough amino acids to maintain future lactation.
Water should always be present in the diet, and the table shows the norms of its consumption:
After farrowing, the sow loses moisture from the body and therefore clean drinking water should be abundant. Acceptable fluid temperature is not below +10 degrees. Also, adequate water supply leads to good milk production in the pig.
When a pig has farrowed, it can become constipated. To improve her condition, you need to give a liquid talker 8-10 hours after the birth of piglets. It adds laxative ingredients - bran and oatmeal.
The rate of feeding is increased gradually, from about 2 kg to 5-7 kg. Already a week after farrowing, suckling sows should be fully fed. If immediately feeding is abundant, then it threatens active milk formation, which leads to mastitis.
The table shows the approximate diet of the winter period for sows with ten piglets:
Potatoes are served boiled, carrots and beets, raw, minced. The hay is well dried, the grass is clean and fresh - everything is grown without chemical additives.
For best results, the feeding of the sows is supplemented with concentrated feed (3.5 kg - 6.5 kg per day). They are given in the form of gruel (mash), which add hay or grass meal, minerals and premixes.
If feeding is scanty, the sow will spend its reserves (protein, calcium) from its own body to form milk. As a result, will begin to lose weight and ache. For 100 kg of the weight of a pig, it is necessary to eat 1.5 feed units, and for each piglet being fed, 0.33-0.38 feeds. units
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