Breeding and fattening piglets for meat at home is somewhat different from how animals are raised on large industrial farms. But in any case, the goal is one - in the shortest time to achieve the desired slaughter weight. In the article we will look at how to feed pigs for rapid growth, what are the standards of food consumption, and whether it is necessary to further enrich them with vitamins. It is mainly about a small private farm, where 2-3 individuals are grown for personal use.
When piglets are born at home, they feed on the womb's milk, and after 3-5 days they are taught to take solid food. More on this in the article "On feeding suckling pigs".
After the piglet was taken away from the sow (at about 1.5-2 months), it is grown on dairy products, kitchen waste, cereals - everything that can be cooked in your own kitchen. In the diet of weaners, be sure to have chalk and salt 15-20 g each. From succulent foods - potatoes, carrots, grass, tops. In winter, young animals are given a chop, silage, hay dust twice as much as in summer. Feeding pigs at home can begin when the individual reaches 50 kg.
For weight gain to be fast and effective, you need to use the most nutritious foods. Food may include vegetables, meat, cereals, flour, fruit and vegetable peeling, bread mixed with bran. At the same time, by the age of seven months a piglet can weigh up to 100 kg.
In order to maximally fatten a pig in a personal household, it is necessary not only to follow the rules of feeding, but also to fulfill the obligatory norms of maintenance and care:
- the shed for pigs should be warm and bright;
- clean and fresh water freely available - for piglets of 6 l daily, for adult pigs up to 12 l;
- disinfection of the premises is carried out every month;
- the diet consists only of high-quality and fresh products;
- waste from the home table is used fresh or after heat treatment;
- the grain is ground before serving;
- residues of feed from the feeders are removed.
It doesn't matter what types of fattening are used - meat, bacon or greasy, but the general rules for all are the same. However, there are some tricks to get meat with a layer of fat or, conversely, fat with a strip of meat. Consider a more detailed diet at each of them.
Bacon food scheme
Provided that you get meat for bacon at home, we immediately emphasize that the remainder of products from your table are excluded from the diet of pigs. The feeding pattern is similar to that used in large pig farms. This can be found in the article "fattening pigs for quick weight gain."
To obtain high-quality bacon meat with a fat layer, the pig must necessarily feed on barley, dairy products, legumes. Due to them, there is an active build-up of muscle tissue.
Young animals are put on fattening when the pig is 2.5 months old, and the individual weighs 25 kg. Do not forget that the males should already be neutered. In the article "About castration of pigs," we talk about this in more detail.
When fattening to a six-month-old bacon, you can stick to this feeding ration, where the juicy feed will be 3 kg per day, skimmed with 1.5 kg concentrates and 2 kg of various root crops. These are carrots, beets, potatoes, pumpkin. Salt as an additive - 20 g. Two meals a day are provided.
As mentioned above, it is necessary to add barley to the food for bacon-fed pigs, as it improves the taste of meat. The average daily gains in the last 2-3 months of fattening can reach 600 g. At the same time, the supply of soybeans, bran, fish waste, as they worsen the characteristics of the future bacon.
Walking at home should be daily, which, for example, on the farm is not always feasible. Motor activity contributes to the formation in the meat of a series of meat and fat layers.
Table with an approximate diet for bacon piglets:
Landrace and Duroc breeds are suitable for bacon carcasses, as they have a long body. The products of the middle part of the most good. From a pig weighing 100 kg, an average of 10 kg of bacon can be produced. So, this is an expensive delicacy.
If you want to get a meat pig at home, then it is put on fattening in three months. The process lasts until they gain weight from 100 to 120 kg. Almost all breeds of pigs are suitable. If there is a lot of feed and time, then the animals are fattened slowly. This method is often chosen in private farms, and it is called low-intensity.
But at home fattening, you can choose an intensive option. Usually it is practiced in pig farms, because it will allow to achieve the desired mass in a short time. Gain per day will reach 650 g. In turn, this period is divided into preparatory (longer) and final (short). Together they last about 4 months. If a pig weighs 20 kg, then he laid 1.3 feed units per day. 60 kg - 2.6, and 90 kg (at the end of fattening) - 4.
The first period is best to start in the warm season - in spring and summer, because greens are the main component for feeding pigs. They are given root crops, melons, bean vegetation.
In winter, grass meal and combined silage get into the diet. Protein premixes are needed for intensive weight gain, but at home they are not usually given, nor are hormones used, because the meat is prepared for itself and not for sale. Increase the amount of protein due to legumes.
With a lack of protein, animal growth ceases, and fat mass increases. To prevent this, a unit of feed needs to provide 115 g of digestible protein. Vitamins, minerals and amino acids are surely added to food.
The final period is short and at this time the daily increase should reach 750 g. If the pig is fed potatoes, then it is half the diet. The other part is the concentrate. Protein is given in the range of 100 g per feed unit.
In addition to potatoes, beets, food and dairy waste are allowed. And salt is required - 40 g per day. Food that can spoil the taste of meat - fish products, soybeans, bran and millet. Therefore, for the fattening period it is completely excluded.
Pigs are fattened at home at home when their weight has already reached 100 kg. The animal is sent for slaughter with a weight of 200 kg. It happens that the weight of sows can reach 250-280 kg. We will tell you how to feed the animals correctly, so that the fat is not tough, and the amount of meat is no more than 40%. A proper diet will allow you to increase 1 kg of body weight per day.
Food of this type involves carbohydrate foods - potatoes, corn, and root vegetables. Concentrates that contain wheat and corn are used. Toward the end of fattening, they can be replaced by millet, barley. This will improve the quality and taste of products. The set of products recommended for fattening pigs for lard is the same for personal farming and for a pig farm. Just different scales.
Approximate food piglets weighing 100 kg for fattening consists of 4 kg of green feed, 3.5 kg of pumpkin, 3 kg of concentrate, 50 g of salt. Animals lead a sedentary lifestyle and closer to the end of such feeding, after 2-3 months, they become rounded. With increasing weight, the amount of feed consumed increases. For example, if a pig's weight has already reached 150 kg, then 5-6 kg of potatoes, 4-5 kg of fodder beet, 55 g of salt, 2 kg of crushed barley are put to it per day.
Feeding occurs 2 times a day. It is believed that the pig eats normally if the food is in the trough within an hour from the time of submission. If everything is eaten much faster, you can increase the juicy and green food. If food is absorbed very slowly, then its amount should be reduced.
How and what the piglets are fed at home for rapid growth, we have told, now turn to additives for growing organisms. With them, fattening periods can significantly be reduced. At the same time, the meat improves taste, and the product increases the nutritional value.
There are different options for supplements, but it is better not to abuse them, since a pig can also gain weight well on homemade food. It is necessary to select those that are rapidly excreted from the body, do not have a negative impact on pigs and people. If antibiotics are used, they can cause dangerous bacteria to become addictive to them.
Among the most popular drugs in the domestic pig industry can be identified monosodium glutamate and baker's yeast. Thanks to the first substance, the taste of the feed is improved and pigs can eat more than usual. Its negative impact on human and animal organisms has not been proven.
The most effective way to grow a pig in a short period of time is the second substance, yeast. Home recipe looks like this. 100 g of dry yeast is added to hot but not boiling water (5 liters). In this solution you need to pour 2 kg of feed. An opara costs 6 hours, after which 15 liters of water and 7.5 kg of grain mixture are poured into it.
If you feed pigs with such an additive at home, then this is a significant savings in feed. At the same time, animals have increased appetite and improved digestion. Usually, piglets are given such a dish twice a day. For pigs weighing and castrated boars up to 50 kg, a serving makes up 50% of the total daily ration, with animals weighing up to 100 kg - 20%.
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