About breeding and rearing pigs


Industrial breeding of pigs can be organized, even with a small private plot of land. Having created a pig-breeding complex, it is possible to fully provide food not only to the family, but also to profit from the sale of meat and fat in the market or in wholesale distribution networks at extremely competitive prices. Having a well-designed business plan, a farm built according to all the rules, quality care and feeding are key to success.

Profitable business with a serious income

Food production is a profitable investment, bringing high profits, and the demand for food products remains at a stable level. If crop production has its own characteristics related to the periodicity of crop growth, then in livestock farming you can build a business that will generate a steady income all year round.

Separately in this series is breeding pigs, which is considered the most profitable investment, due to the high productivity of animals and high speed of building muscle mass.

If the weight of a newborn piglet does not reach 1 kg, then with rational feeding, already at 8 months the animal will reach a weight of 100-120 kg and can be sent for slaughter.

A one-year-old pig or a boar will weigh 150-160 kg and will accumulate a large amount of subcutaneous fat or fat, which is in demand in our country.

Females are fertile from nature

Sows have very high fecundity. They can bear offspring every six months, bringing at one time from 12 to 14 piglets. When breeding pigs for sale, you can also get a decent income. They are in demand among buyers, and a small amount of food eaten before they reach the selling age of 1-1.5 months significantly increases the profitability of such a business.

Pigs are almost omnivores. They absorb food of plant and animal origin, quickly gaining weight. Moreover, the digestibility of nutrients is not less than two thirds of the total amount of feed used.

When gaining live weight, the pig requires much less feed than other domestic animals, and the use of modern technologies in pig breeding gives the piglet the opportunity to grow much faster while maintaining the qualitative characteristics of its meat and lard.

The output of meat and fat is up to 85% of the total weight of pig carcass, while in cattle such an indicator hardly falls to 50-60%. Pork traditionally enjoys a special love and popularity of consumers, and its prices are kept at a consistently high level.

Decide on the breeding method

The owners of private farmsteads try to breed pigs in small quantities (from 1 to 3), providing their families with meat and bacon. Most often they use traditional methods based on the omnivorous nature of animals, feeding them with waste from their table.

This makes some sense, but is not capable of making a profit, which owners of even a small pig-breeding farm are counting on. With full-fledged industrial rearing of young pigs for meat, it is advisable to use specially constructed pigsty, which can simultaneously contain from 10 fattening animals.

Today, there are various methods of breeding pigs for meat (stall, walking or stall-walking), each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. When choosing a breeding method for piglets, you should be guided by the availability of free space for building a pig farm and a free-standing area, and also carefully calculate your financial possibilities in acquiring feed.

In the southern regions of the country, growing pigs using Canadian technology is becoming increasingly popular. The essence of this method lies in the fact that the fattening piglets are kept in a common unheated room on a thick bed of straw, when rotting which produces additional heat.

General features of the arrangement of the pig farm

If you decide to organize the professional cultivation of pigs for meat, you should take care of the construction of the pigsty, in which there should be offices for fattening piglets, pregnant sows, boars of producers.

The pig farm itself should be located at a distance of at least 10 m from the living quarters, and with a content of 15 or more mature animals, this distance should be no closer than 40 m from the dwelling.

For pigs bred for meat is enough 2.5 square meters. m area per individual, and for a sow with piglets or an adult wild boar it is necessary to equip a machine with an area of ​​about 5 square meters. m. Putting together two adult wild boars is strictly prohibited, because they will fight without fail and may injure each other.

Actually, the same rules apply to domestic pig farms, which we describe in the article “Peculiarities of keeping pigs at home”.

It is best to grow pigs in the machines, although in recent years the Canadian pig breeding technology, in which fattening animals are kept in the common room, having the ability to move freely, is gaining popularity. Details on this can be found in the article "Construction of pigs".

IP registration has its advantages

Industrial breeding of pigs is a full-fledged business, which involves the mandatory sale of meat and fat in the trading network, which requires control over product quality by the state. Some livestock breeders prefer to work "in the shade", selling meat products on natural and collective farm markets. This creates serious difficulties in the implementation of veterinary control, which prevents the spread of dangerous infections among consumers, including the swine flu virus A1H1.

In order not to expose your business to additional risks, it is best to officially register your own farm and farm for the breeding of pigs for meat. To pay relatively small taxes, reporting on the results of work, as well as to conduct veterinary checks of pets.

To register a farm, you must file an application with the copy of your passport with the tax authority and pay a state fee of 800 rubles. Documents can be sent in person or sent by mail. In either case, within 5 working days you will be issued a certificate of registration of an individual entrepreneur (PI), as well as a list of entries in the EGRIP.

IP registration provides a number of advantages, including the possibility of state support, lending to a pig farm, as well as the ability to sell meat products through large retail chains.

Prepare a business plan

Professional breeding of piglets involves the preliminary preparation of a business plan, which will take into account all possible risks, problems and costs. According to it, it will be immediately clear whether to build a pig farm from scratch or use other options.

Remember that it is very expensive to specifically purchase or rent land for the equipment of domestic pigsty, and this approach makes sense only when building large livestock farms designed for several hundred pigs.

The initial acquisition of 10 piglets is considered optimal, among which there must be at least two hogs that can later become producers.

With standard pig keeping and breeding, the fattening meat pig eats up to 400 kg of concentrated feed enriched with premixes and biologically active additives to its slaughter.

You should have enough money to buy 4 tons of such feed in bulk. It will be much cheaper than gradually buying bags of mixed fodder at retail.

By 9-10 months from each piglet, which has reached a weight of 120-130 kg, up to 100 kg of high-quality pork and fat are obtained, which can be sold without problems.

Already after the slaughter of the first meat piglets and the sale of their carcasses, farmers receive additional funds that can be invested in production.

Practice shows that start-up capital in order to start your own pig business must be at least 300 thousand rubles. This is when the initial number of animals 10-12 heads. This amount does not include the cost of building the premises.

Accurate costing is the foundation of farm profitability.

In most cases, novice breeders do not have the means to hire workers who will take care of pigs, so they are forced to take on such responsibilities on themselves and their relatives. This makes it possible not to invest in the business plan additional labor costs.

Even if you can build a farm for breeding pigs with your own hands, the wiring of electricity and ventilation equipment in livestock farms will require the involvement of specialists.

If you plan to maintain adult pigs and practice their breeding, then you will have to seek help from a veterinarian who will help take in the sow-born babies. He will make the necessary vaccinations and castrates feed hogs. And when slaughtering will give a document that the pig you raised meets sanitary standards, and its meat can be sold in the trading network.

You will have to ask for help from the tractor drivers who will be able to deliver feed to the farm, and also bring pigs to the landfill.

Choose the direction of livestock

When planning to breed pigs, determine in advance what breed of pigs you are best to buy and what direction of livestock production to focus on. Depending on the quality of pork, animal breeds are conventionally divided into three types:

  • meat and bacon pigs, with a tender body constitution, in which there is practically no layer of blubber;
  • meat and grease, in which the layer of fat is small, and the amount of meat is predominant;
  • Fat-meat piglets that build up a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, reaching 10-12 cm in some cases.

The most popular in Russia are representatives of meat and greasy large white breed, which reach weight of 100 kg and more by 7 months.

Pigs of the bacon breed Landrace reach a weight of 100 kg or more by 7-8 months, but all their fatty layers are evenly distributed throughout the meat, and there is no thick greasy layer.

Of the fat-meat breeds, pigs of large black breed are the most famous, which also grow rapidly, accumulating a thick layer of fat under the skin.

Some breeders practice pig breeding of Vietnamese vislobrew breed. These are herbivores, the costs of which are low, and their dietary meat is valued by gourmets.

Follow the diet and frequency of feeding.

After purchasing the pigs, they need to be checked with a veterinarian, who can advise on how to start feeding properly and provide them with proper care, as well as check for all necessary vaccinations against infectious diseases.

By the appearance of the individual, the doctor is able to determine which vitamins he lacks, and recommend a special diet.

If you have purchased a pig of one and a half months, you should be prepared to ensure that before they reach slaughter age and weight of 110-120 kg, the pig will eat at least 400 kg of mixed feed, including yeast, premixes and other dietary supplements.

It is best to first consult with experts who will advise how to raise a pig so that it gains weight as quickly as possible, consuming the optimal amount of feed.

Proper care requires walking pigs and cleaning the room where they are kept. Feed the pig before it reaches the age of three months at least 5 times a day. Over the next two months, you can feed 4 times a day, and after reaching 5 months and before slaughter it is recommended to transfer pigs to three meals a day.

The livestock breeder chooses how to grow strong pigs for meat, providing them with the necessary care and feeding. Details about this in the article "About breeding pigs at home: tips for beginners."

Piglets need to balance

Pigs are considered omnivorous animals and with ordinary fattening for meat at home with their breeding there are no particular problems. The situation is quite different with the industrial approach. A novice farmer needs to decide how to raise piglets in order to minimize the cost of their meat while gaining weight quickly.

Even on a small farm it is not recommended to feed pigs with food waste. They can negatively affect the digestive process, causing the animal to feel sick, which will start to eat poorly and reduce the rate of weight gain.

Pigs raised for meat should receive cereal mixtures rich in microelements, fruits and vegetables, including root vegetables, as well as tops of legumes, nettles, every day. Excellent results are obtained by the yeast feed and the addition of premixes.

The table of recommendations for fattening piglets for meat:

A pig should consume up to 10 g of salt per day, as well as a 2.5% solution of ferrous sulfate, which prevents the development of anemia.

Breed piglets and adult pigs that are fattened to meat should be bred in well ventilated areas where the moisture level should not exceed 70%. It requires a good illumination, although the light should not be too bright, and not annoy the animals.

If, due to the nature of the design of the farm, there is not enough light, then it is necessary to provide artificial lighting that will burn at least 10-12 hours a day, including when the pigs take food.

The optimal temperature in the pigsty is 18-20 degrees Celsius, and for dairy pigs it is required to increase it to 32-33 degrees. Details on the content of milk pigs, read the article "The content of small pigs."

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