The quality of pork depends on what pigs are fed at pig farms. Due to the physiological and anatomical features of the stomach, their body absorbs concentrated feed better, and food with a high content of fiber is digested very poorly. For the same reasons, the animal prefers moist food. Thus, the requirements for growing and feeding piglets are based primarily on their needs. Let's find out what they eat pigs.
Variety and classification of feed
How to feed pigs in the industrial content depends on the breed, the age of pigs, as well as the ultimate goal of their cultivation. Pig production ranks first in the meat sector of the world animal husbandry. Next, we analyze what you can feed the pigs and how many times a day is better to do it.
All feed conditionally divided into three groups. The first can be attributed to those that contribute to obtaining high-quality juicy meat with a layer of thin fat. On the other hand, the predominance of these products in the diet favorably affects the fact that the fat is dense and granular. These include:
- cereals, legumes;
- milk products;
- zucchini, juicy root vegetables, potatoes, carrots, pumpkin;
- alfalfa, clover, shchiritsa, nettle, beet tops, cabbage leaves;
- meat and fish residues;
- dust from bean grasses.
The second category of feed is what pigs eat almost every day, but the content of these products in the daily diet should be a maximum of 50%. Give the necessary energy to the pig body will help feeding corn, rye and wheat bran, buckwheat. However, these ingredients do not contribute to the quality of the pork.
Cake, soybean crops, pig oats can eat well. But this worsens the quality of the meat, so feed the pig with such products should be only at a young age before the beginning of the fattening stage.
Types, types of feeding
We sorted out what to feed the pigs and defined groups of feed. Now we find out how to feed these animals, because they secrete liquid, dry and wet feeding.
Liquid feed for pigs should be prepared from various components, which are additionally boiled or used raw. Juicy root vegetables in the form of zucchini, rutabagas, beets, as well as melons, pumpkin is crushed and introduced into the composition of mash. They need not be subjected to thorough heat treatment.
It is strongly not recommended to feed the pigs with raw potatoes and peelings, as the pig's body does not digest such foods. Moreover, water from boiled potatoes must be disposed of.
Grain components are carefully ground. Often used germinated grain, which is pre-soaked. The composition of the mash are added waste food you eat, various cleaning, meat, fish residues. For more information on the preparation of mash can be found in the article "Feeding a pig at home." Eating liquid and wet food is exactly what pigs love.
Dry feeding is now most often used by large pig farms. Why this is so can be found below.
Dry food in pork diet
With a dry type of food feed for pigs is specially developed, enriched with vitamins and minerals.
Pig farms use dry feed that does not ferment inside the pig's intestines. Such food is easily digested by the swine organism, providing a quick weight gain. In addition, the dry remains and what the herd of pigs feeds on industrial complexes, do not turn sour and do not deteriorate.
Feeding dry feed saves a lot of time and effort. Pigs eat their food well, drinking water. In addition, animal feces with this diet do not have the characteristic smell of ammonia, and the resulting manure quickly decomposes into organic components, which become an excellent fertilizer.
The basis of a dry diet are combined feed, consisting of cereal grains, oil cake, bran, hay. Such a ration for feeding pigs is enhanced by special complexes of food additives and nutrients. This allows you to vary the nutrition of pigs.
Thus, feeding pigs with dry food should be comprehensive and balanced, since piglets need good nutrition at different stages of growth and development.
The value of biological feed
The content of natural vitamins in the pig diet is important for the growing body of a pig. Biologically valuable food saturates the body with useful substances, which is why domestic and wild pigs eat fruits, vegetables, melons and gourds, shredded chestnuts, various meadow or vegetable greens, beet tops with great appetite.
In addition, for a good nutrition in the preparation of the mash, various cleaning elements are added to their composition.
Keeping animals in the warm season allows them to be walking. At the same time, a pig with pleasure independently finds what to eat, relying on what the body requires. Taking into account how healthy food is eaten by pigs, it is recommended to harvest the hay of various field plants for the winter, to prepare silage from succulent products. In addition, pig feed during industrial cultivation is constantly enriched with vitamins, which contain modern ready-made balanced biological additives. The article "Using Premix for Pigs" contains all the additional information.
Features of the natural nutrition of pigs
In nature, the wild boar diet is very rich. Animals eat almost any food they find. The pig always ate the larvae, insects, worms, small birds and animals, mollusks, fish. Therefore, there is no doubt whether pigs eat meat.
Pigs in the forest also prefer to eat forest mushrooms, acorns, berries, roots, nuts, herbs. They often go to gardens, orchards, where they feed on oats, pumpkin, peas, melons and root crops. In addition, boars are often eaten even leaves.
Homemade pigs are happy to eat food rich in animal protein. A hungry female can eat her droppings, so a nursing sow needs to be fed intensively. Before slaughter during starvation, pigs even begin to eat their own excrement, finding nutrients in feces.
When growing meat, a pig needs a protein diet. It is useful to give beef, chicken, offal, fish in the form of food residues for high-quality formation of muscle mass of a pig. It is proteins that determine the quality of pork with layers of meat.
Chestnut fruits and acorns as valuable feed ingredients
Various additives for pigs are not food in the full sense of the word, but they have a positive effect on the growth and development of a pig. Fruits of chestnut and acorn are valuable means of enrichment of fodder, which surpass many grain crops in the content of proteins and fats.
For example, chestnuts in the amount of 1 kg contain 40 g of protein, 4.8 g of calcium, 1.5 g of phosphorus. At the same time, acorns ripen and fall to the ground in mid-autumn. They are easy to collect, chop and store. Such products should not have signs of rot or mold, as this may adversely affect the health of the pigs.
By the way, chestnuts contain a lot of tannins, which have a fixing effect on the digestive system of pigs. That is why they should be given with succulent feed. Fodder beet, various greens, oatmeal, bran of grain crops perfectly will be suitable for these purposes.
The acorn is the basis for feeding the Iberian pigs, which are grown to produce the famous ham (raw-cured ham).
Thus, chestnuts and acorns are very useful for giving to pigs. It is important to clearly understand how to properly feed the animals. Before adding to the feed, these fruits are recommended to be soaked in cold water for two days or roasted, and then chopped.
Chestnuts should be introduced into the diet of the pig gradually, starting with 800 g per day. Maximum per day can be fed 2 kg of this product. The advantage of such feeding will be grainy dense fat, high-quality meat.
Benefits of using sprouted grains in pork diets
In conditions of pig farms, the most profitable ways of feeding pigs are used, which allow to reduce the consumption of concentrated feed, the cost of purchasing vitamin preparations. Grain germination is the simplest method of fortification, optimization of feed mixtures.
Sprouted grains have a sweet taste and are eaten with pleasure by small piglets. Due to this, their digestive system develops faster, immunity is formed.
Germinated grain is a valuable nutritional food containing vitamins C, E, B, carotene, important trace elements, amino acids. In addition, it is far superior to normal wheat in protein concentration.
When barley grains germinate, their enzymes turn complex substances into simpler elements that are easily digested. The method of feeding piglets with feed using germinated grain has a positive effect on all functions of the growing organism.
If you feed young pigs from 4 to 7 months with such feed, then the volume of high-quality meat with a layer of thin fat increases. At the same time the daily feeding rate is 10% of the total diet. That is why this type of feed is exactly the better way to feed pig meat for quality products.
Remains of fermentation industries as an important part of the diet
Beer pellet (thick) contains more water, so poorly stored.
On the other hand, concentrated feed mixtures are conveniently stirred with a liquid beer pellet. Adult sows are recommended 10-15 liters of this fluid per day, and young animals - 2-4 liters. To improve feed quality when using this additive is dried.
In this form, the pellet is suitable for long-term storage.
In order for the grainy lard to be with layers of soft meat, one should add a beer pellet in the amount of 0.6-1.0 kg per head per day to the pigs ration during fattening.
If animals without appetite eat their food, then having processed it with yeast and brewer's grains, it can be aroused, and after slaughter, good meat and lard are obtained.
However, such substances contain very few minerals. That is why it is recommended in parallel to give the piglets limestone, chalk, rapeseed meal. Dry brewer's yeast contains up to 50% of well digestible protein, a lot of vitamins, so eating them pigs is useful. The feed mixtures treated by them contribute to the improvement of animal digestion and the quality of meat products. This explains why such substances are necessary for piglets.
Useful properties of popular feed
Above, we talked about whether it is possible to feed pigs with potato peelings and the root crop itself. We do not recommend to include it in the diet in raw form. We also note oats, which are inferior to barley in nutritional properties, but sometimes they give it to nursing sows, for some reason considering it to be useful.
But at the fattening stage, this is something that pigs cannot be fed due to the deterioration of meat quality. Peas, rapeseed, meat residues play the role of protein carriers, so they improve the quality of pork. The use of rapeseed meal gives the body calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, zinc. These are sufficient reasons to include it in the menu.
Among the things that pigs eat with pleasure is corn. Its energy saturation is comparable to sugar beet, so it is important for the growth of young.
Feed the pigs properly when growing and eat the most delicious pork. A table giving daily feeds for a piglet weighing 50 kg will help you to make the necessary ration:
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