When growing pigs, the farmer’s attention is focused on feeding the pigs at home. Immediately after birth, pigs begin to feed on mother's milk, gaining up to 10 kg of body weight for the first month. Most suckers from the fifth day of life inspect the feeder with mineral additives and try to nibble them. After a week, pigs most often already need feeding. Efficiency of feeding depends on full-fledged products, diet and recipes for the preparation of mixtures.
How to choose piglets
When choosing piglets for growing, it is better to give preference to babies of winter and spring birth. This allows you to fatten young pigs at the lowest cost, because in the warm season a lot of green plants, garden products, fruits and grains. In addition, animals can spend more time in open pens.
Often, farmers choose a piglet between 1.5 and 2 months of age, because such animals already eat on their own, and caring for them does not require much effort. It is recommended to purchase a couple of pigs for their own comfort.
When choosing a pig meat, bacon or greasy breed should be based on the following criteria:
- external signs of a quality animal, which include a wide back, elongated body, strong legs, uniform, clean breathing;
- general activity, good appetite, ability to chew food;
- the availability of necessary vaccinations;
- weight within the age norm.
The quality of future meat and fat directly depends on how to feed the pigs from the very beginning after their purchase. A varied diet should be complete, containing a maximum of vitamins and minerals.
The most important moments of feeding the young pigs
Feeding piglets is necessary taking into account the physiological characteristics of their body. Thus, the structure of the pork stomach implies a more rapid absorption of concentrated feed.
On the other hand, whole grains of cereal crops are practically not digested by the body of pigs. Such products are recommended to be crushed and pre-soaked with hot water in a 1: 2 ratio. The rest of the food is stirred with cooked oatmeal, which is prepared from 1 kg of oatmeal, filled with boiled water. The mixture should be infused for 3 hours inside a warm room. This feed likes pig.
Due to the low protein content inside cereals, the piglet ration is better to enrich with leguminous plants, oilcake, low-fat milk, meat and fish residues, meat and bone meal. Fodder yeast will be useful for enhancing digestion.
When determining the amount of food you need to focus on how much the animal can eat. It is important to prevent souring of feed residues and dispose of them in time. For high-quality breeding of young pigs, you need to provide a complete diet, rich in vitamins and minerals.
Dry and wet pig feeding
Despite the different physical and material costs, both wet and dry method of fattening can lead to excellent results.
The basis of wet feeding piglets are masters. We prepare them based on time-tested recipes. The most important ingredients are boiled potatoes, beets, pumpkin, melons and gourds. An excellent addition will be various food waste, meat, fish debris, eggshell, vitamin, mineral supplements. Cereals should be chopped beforehand. They add the cake, pea flour.
Dry feeding is much easier to provide, since in this case it is not necessary to mix products, boil vegetables. With this option, the efficiency of fattening increases. Constipation can be a side effect, so young animals need constant access to clean, fresh water. On one head per day requires 5-6 liters of water.
The effect of feeding on the quality of the final pork products
There is a strong opinion that when growing pigs at home, they can be fed with various foods. This is true, but any diet, in addition to nutritional value, should be beneficial for the swine organism. Often use various biological additives to improve the quality of food.
Food preparation should be based on the knowledge of how certain foods affect the quality of lard and meat. For example, if vegetables predominate within the feed mixtures, the fat will be flabby and yellow. Fish waste in the final stages of fattening piglets give the meat a peculiar smell.
In cases when a large amount of bran from wheat and corn is eaten by pigs, the quality and taste of pork deteriorates markedly. It has an unpleasant taste, friability. Excess oilcake, oats, soybeans, fish meal in the final stages of fattening pigs also spoil the meat products obtained after slaughter. It is not recommended to abuse the use of potatoes and buckwheat in the composition of feed for piglets.
Thus, the use of these products to create feed mixtures should be based on the correct standards and frequency. In the article "On feed for pigs" we talk about this in detail. In addition, from the early stages of life and development of piglets, it is important to determine the method of fattening in accordance with the ultimate goals.
Norms and features of meat-fed piglets
The result of meat growing pigs at home is a tender, juicy meat with a layer of fat 3 cm thick on the back above the spine. Feeding by a special technique begins when the piglet is two and a half months old. In order to obtain high quality pork, feed should be carried out sequentially in two stages. Each of them requires a special menu.
First, pigs are fattened to a weight of 70 kg. Up to this point, the daily ration should be limited. Piglets per day should eat 1 kg of concentrates or 5 kg of mash beans consisting of food waste, meat and fish residues, legumes, clover, peas.
After accumulation of 70 kg of body weight, nutritional standards increase in order to fatten the piglet for meat to slaughter weight in a short time.
The daily ration should consist of 1.5 kg of concentrates, 2 kg of boiled potatoes, 5 kg of beets, 6 kg of green plants. All feed mixtures are recommended to be salted in the cooking process. For this, a piglet will need 10-30 g of salt per day, as well as chalk.
Bacon fattening pigs
To obtain "marble" pork choose landrass animals, Duroc, which are fed according to a certain technology. Fattening piglets begin at the age of 2-2.5 months. Two weeks before the hog should be castrated. Below we consider how to grow thoroughbred pigs to get bacon in your yard.
The first stage lasts up to the age of 6 months. During this period, the pigs receive special food. Every day they eat 1.5 kg of concentrated feed, 1.5 kg of low-fat milk, 2 kg of beets and pumpkin each. Such feed mixtures enrich 3 kg of greens and salt 20-25 g of salt. This diet provides a daily weight gain of 400 g.
At the next stage of fattening, which lasts up to 8.5 months, the diet of the pig changes. The main goal is to increase the daily weight gain to 600 g. More legumes, millet, barley, and various additives are introduced in the daily menu. In addition, products that may affect pork quality are completely excluded. These include fish, soybean, cake. In addition to proper feeding, pigs at this time need to walk.
Proper feeding of sebaceous breeds
Young piglets are most suitable for greasy fattening; they have already gained 100 kg of weight. Accelerating a set of live weight directly contribute to carbohydrate-rich food. For these purposes, perfect sugar beet, boiled potatoes.
These roots form the basis of the diet, and wheat and corn concentrates will complement the menu. They need to give 3 kg per day per head. To improve the quality of lard, millet, barley is gradually used instead of corn.
Following such a diet helps pigs gain 200 kg of body weight in a short time. In this case, half of this mass will be high-quality fat.
Accelerate the growth of pigs using special feed additives. Thanks to such substances, nutritional value, palatability of feeds are improved and their digestion by the digestive system of animals is enhanced. During the day, pigs eat about 2 buckets of feed mixtures.
At home, weigh a large pig is difficult, because not everyone has in the house cargo scales. But there is a special method, which we describe in the article "Measuring the weight of a pig according to the table."
The most important feeding times for piglets
To feed small piglets right from birth, ensuring their intensive growth and development, you should always focus on the capabilities of their digestive system. The production of gastric juice at the end of the lactation period expands the diet of pigs. In accordance with the physiological development of animals, three stages of feeding piglets are distinguished: the milk period, the rearing stage, and the fattening.
The dairy stage continues for two months, but after four weeks, the sow has a milk deficiency. Monthly piglets at home should be fed 6-7 times a day, because the stomachs of pigs at this age are still small. From now on, the kids menu is enriched with milk porridges, dairy products, skim milk and whole milk.
After weaning suckers from the sow, they weigh from 20 to 25 kg and are ready to fully eat a variety of feed. This period is most suitable for castration of pigs when they are grown for meat. From 2 to 4 months there is an intensive set of muscle mass by piglets. They intensively grow and develop.
Until four months of age, pigs are already gaining about 50 kg of live weight. From this moment begins their intensive feeding, which lasts about three months. The main task of this period is intensive growth, weight gain by pigs.
Milk stage of the development of young pigs
Immediately after birth, babies are brought to the mother's nipples. Already for 5-7 days of life the teeth begin to erupt. Dairy pigs are beginning to be actively interested in the contents of the feeders. From the first week should be put there mineral supplements. Chalk pieces, sod, charcoal, red clay will be useful.
As soon as the kids learn how to gnaw mineral supplements, drink water, it is recommended to give them complementary foods. First, roasted wheat grains, peas, and corn are suitable for this. From ten days of age, you can feed pigs with grated carrots, limiting its amount to 10-15 g per day. Also suitable bean hay, milk porridge. Sour milk is an excellent means of preventing intestinal diseases that can occur in piglets of this age.
After three weeks of life suckling problems with their feeding becomes much less. From now on, you can safely include boiled potatoes, beets, pumpkin in the diet, and in the summer add nettle, shiritsu, clover. At the same time, it is advisable to scald the green grass with boiling water, and chop it before adding it to the feed.
Now let's talk about how and what to feed the monthly piglets. It is important to feed the entire feed volume three times. At the age of 1.5 months, the suckers are removed from the mother. And already in 2 months the daily ration of a piglet consists of 600 g of skim meat, 500 g of boiled potatoes, 250 g of various root crops, 150 g of crushed grain, 100 g of grass meal, 15 g of chalk and 10 g of salt.
Feeding piglets when rearing
The piglet's age from 2.5 to 4 months is the starting point for creating important prerequisites for successful fattening of pigs of different breeds. Balanced nutrition, proper maintenance contribute to the rapid growth of animals.
Barley, oatmeal, pea porridge, kitchen leftovers, various dairy products, food waste help to provide intensive growth. Along with this, youngsters need juicy garden products - carrots, beet tops, potatoes, zucchini, beets, melons and gourds.
At the same time, animals must get 15-20 g of salt and chalk per day. In winter, the rate of vegetables doubles. Cooked silage, hay, chopping is used. Feeding is carried out three times a day at regular intervals.
After rearing, the fattening period begins, the goal of which is to set 100-110 kg of body weight in a short time. The diet of pigs at this stage should include concentrates, biological additives, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Protein components are concentrated inside legumes, milk, meat, fish.
Carbohydrates most of all contain root vegetables, green feed. They are indispensable sources of energy for the pork body. Vegetables, fruits, melons contain a maximum of vitamins, minerals. In addition, these nutrients contain special premixes that enhance the absorption of feed.
The use of special additives activates the metabolic processes of the body. The main thing - to choose the right substances in accordance with the recommended standards. At this stage, the diet of pigs should be formed in accordance with the objectives of obtaining pork. In this case, pigs need daily 6-8 liters of water.
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