The level of profitability of livestock farming is directly affected by the diseases of piglets, which reduce the rate of increase in muscle mass. If you have not identified signs of disease in a timely manner, the condition of the animals will begin to deteriorate at a very rapid pace, they will lose their appetite and will look lethargic. When the infection penetrates into the pigsty, its spread can lead to infection of the entire population, and, in some cases, to its death. What to do if your pig is sick, we will tell in this article.
Dangerous diseases of piglets
Colossal damage in pig farming is caused by piglets' diseases affecting animals at an early age. Due to the weak immunity of babies, the risk of death in the first weeks of life is very high, and even one lost day can lead to disastrous consequences.
Most often piglets suffer from:
- swine flu;
- viral pneumonia;
- edema disease;
- peptic ulcer disease.
Each of these diseases of pigs is extremely insidious and even with the visible improvement of the condition of piglets can lead to complications in the form of meningitis, pneumonia, arthritis. Mortality among young animals reaches a rate of 60%.
If you notice the slightest signs of these diseases, you should immediately begin a comprehensive treatment. To prevent them, it is necessary to carefully observe sanitary and hygienic standards, limiting the contact of pigs with diseased pigs.
Deadly Swine Flu
Swine flu most often affects young animals under the age of 1 month, whose immunity is not yet fully formed and is not able to resist infections. As a rule, infection with this disease of pigs occurs during the onset of cold weather, when piglets taken away from the sow are under severe stress.
The sick pig looks depressed, lies a lot and practically does not eat. He develops signs of a cold (coughing, sneezing, nasal mucous discharge) and fever. The tail, ears and limbs due to weak blood flow acquire a bluish tint.
An effective treatment for this dangerous disease has not been developed, and the only way to protect against swine flu is to maintain cleanliness and hygiene standards.
Pigs with symptoms of this disease are transferred to quarantine offices and treated symptomatically. If the animal recovers, then it becomes a carrier of a dangerous infection, and it is still required to reject it.
The pigsty where the sick animals were kept is required to be disinfected. To do this, it is treated with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide, the concentration of which should be at least 2.5-3%.
Viral pneumonia and enterotoxemia
Viral pneumonia is manifested in the presence of dry cough in piglets. Kids eat well, but do not gain weight. For treatment, tetracycline-based drugs are used that are injected into the animal.
Sick piglets need to be rejected without fail, because even after recovery, they remain carriers of a dangerous infection.
Enterotoxemia or edema is caused by Escherichia coli. It manifests itself in pigs, which are transferred from mother's milk to adult feed.
Rich in protein feeds poorly absorbed, and an excess of nitrogen activates the development in the intestines of an animal bacteria, poisoning the body with its metabolic products.
The little pig does not eat anything and walks shakily in a circle. He begins to swell face, there are convulsions and paralysis. If you do not change the diet in a timely manner by transferring the baby to special feed mixtures, the animal may die.
When piglets are weaned from sows, their body can produce an insufficient amount of enzymes necessary to digest food. This provokes the development of dyspepsia, which is easily treated by transferring babies to feeding dietary feeds of factory production.
Anemia and other diseases of milk pigs
If the sow produces an insufficient amount of colostrum, then 1-3 day-old piglets develop diseases such as hypoglycemia and anemia.
In the first case, the children do not have enough glucose, which is required to be injected at least three times a day, or every 4 hours to give a piglet 10 ml of 40% sugar solution.
With anemia or anemia due to a lack of hemoglobin, the skin of the piglet becomes pale bluish. For treatment use injections of iron-containing drugs.
Rickets is a dangerous disease that directly affects the development of the pig's skeleton and the subsequent weight gain. Pigs suffering from this disease have twisted limbs and swollen joints. They move a little and stand out against the general background of their thinness.
This disease of piglets develops with a deficiency in the body of vitamins of group D. Some pig farms cultivate such pigs, which is not necessary to do. It is enough to transfer the diseased pig to feeding with mixtures enriched with vitamins, and periodically add fish oil to the feed.
Intestinal and skin diseases
When irregular cleaning of pens and non-compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards in the pigsty begin to rapidly develop staphylococcal infections. A weak little piglet is affected by these bacteria in the first place. He has wounds and suppurations that can spread throughout the body, causing furunculosis.
At the initial stage of the disease, small suppurations can be treated with antiseptics, and with the development of furunculosis, it is required to open ulcers, remove their contents, and carry out therapy with antibiotics.
When unbalanced feeding with dry food, not enriched with vitamins and biologically active substances, a more adult pig may experience digestive disorders, which gradually become peptic ulcer.
The piglet slightly rises in temperature, stomach upsets appear, and blood clots can be seen in fecal masses.
The best treatment is complex therapy with the use of laxatives and gastric lavage. When the piglet is transferred to the diet and strict adherence to the feeding regime, the disease goes away quickly, and the kids again begin to actively gain weight.
Like adult pigs, piglets suffer from helminth infections. How to treat parasitic diseases can be found in the article "Alben and other drugs from worms for pigs."
Diseases of adult pigs and their treatment
In adult pigs, the symptoms and treatment of diseases are somewhat different from the young. This is primarily due to their physiological characteristics and stronger immunity.
The most dangerous infectious diseases of pigs, which are spread by small rodents, birds, insects, as well as animals that are carriers of a particular virus.
Such diseases of pigs are completely impossible to cure. In industrial conditions, animals are immediately culled, and their carcasses are destroyed.
Classical and African swine fever today are considered the most dangerous infectious diseases for which there is no treatment. The main symptoms of the disease are inflammation of the lungs, which is accompanied by coughing and excessive mucus, vomiting and intestinal disorders. In animals, the temperature rises and appears blue in the area of the ears, abdomen and thighs.
All pigs in the infected farm must be destroyed, and the farm must be quarantined for a forty-day quarantine and thoroughly treated with disinfectants.
But there are not so dangerous infections, for example, inflammation of the middle ear, when a pig walks in circles quite successfully cured with special ear drops.
Vesicular rash and its danger
In a particularly acute form of vesicular rash. The disease is accompanied by fever and a large number of rashes on the mucous membrane of the mouth and the patch. As a rule, within two weeks the animal recovers, and the disease becomes chronic.
In industrial farms, pathology is detected almost immediately and all sick pigs are immediately sent for slaughter. At home, this is not always done in a timely manner and the presence of the causative agent is confirmed only by post-mortem pathoanatomical diagnostics.
Pork can be eaten only after a thorough heat treatment. As a rule, it is sent to the manufacture of canned food and sausages.
When identifying the causative agent of vesicular exanthema, the premises of the pigsty and the downhole department should be disinfected, treated with 2% alkaline solution.
Viral gastroenteritis and enzootic pneumonia
Viral gastroenteritis is manifested in a sharp increase in body temperature of pigs and the onset of incessant diarrhea. The animal constantly drink water and eat less than usual.
Among piglets who are diagnosed with viral gastroenteritis, mortality can reach 80-90%, and among adult pigs it does not exceed 20%.
Symptomatic treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian, and the best way to maintain the health of pigs is to increase the immunity of animals through proper nutrition, regular airing and cleaning pens.
To destroy a coronavirus, which under normal conditions retains its stability for 2.5 years, it is necessary to quartzize the premises of the pig farm and process the pens using hot steam.
For the treatment of infectious or enzootic pneumonia, manifested in fever and dry cough, pigs are pierced with large doses of tetracycline or oxytetracycline.
Full cure occurs in 1-2 months, and immunocompromised pigs are recommended to be sent for slaughter.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
Non-infectious diseases of pigs are most often associated with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Among them, particular mention should be made of constipation and abdominal distention, as well as non-infectious diarrhea.
These diseases in pigs and their symptoms are directly related to non-compliance with the rules of feeding animals. When a pig is given home-made feed, and there is no free access to the drinker, then the fermentation and splitting of food in the intestine is slower than it should be. The waste products pass through the digestive tract slowly, causing constipation.
If you give a pig overdue feed, as well as feed it excessively, then fermentation begins in the intestines of the animal, which is accompanied by abundant gas and abdominal distension.
In some cases, this is accompanied by non-infectious diarrhea. For treatment, it is necessary to transfer the pig to a rational diet and switch to the use of factory feeds saturated with biologically active substances, precursors and yeast.
Parasitic or invasive diseases
Invasive diseases of pigs are most often recorded in farms located in areas unfavorable from a parasitic point of view. In Russia, these are southern regions of the country, in which the upper layer of soil freezes through in winter, and the eggs and larvae of parasites retain their vitality for a long time.
Worms can be transmitted by insects, birds, small rodents, domestic animals, and even humans. Therefore, only the observance of sanitary and hygienic standards can prevent their development.
The most common invasive diseases are ascariasis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Read more in the article "Worms in pigs: symptoms and treatment."
Be sure to start the history of the pig or pig, in which you must specify the used medications, their dosage, as well as the therapeutic effect. This will be required to obtain veterinary permission to sell pork in the distribution network.
Subcutaneous mites cause tremendous damage. By secreting the toxic products of their vital activity, they cause allergies and itching, which is called scabies. Animals lose their appetite, gain weight poorly and infect other piglets with ticks.
The correct diagnosis is determined by the veterinarian. He prescribes treatment, which is carried out simultaneously for the entire pig population, followed by disinfection of the pigsty itself.
Along with scabies, other skin diseases of pigs are also a great danger.
Dermatitis is manifested in swelling of the skin, the appearance of redness or ulcers, which is accompanied by fever and painful sensations that depress the pig.
As a rule, the cause of dermatitis is the penetration of abrasions, scratches, frostbite and burns (including chemical) of pathogenic bacteria, which are introduced by parasitic insects.
For treatment, tetracycline sores and other antibacterial ointments should be treated or streptocid powdered.
Particularly should be allocated ringworm caused by the development of fungal infections. If a piglet is sick with this disease, then oval-shaped lesions form on its skin. The skin in these places is peeling off, and the bristles seem to be trimmed.
The pig scratches the affected area, spreading the fungus spores throughout the body. The diseased animal should be urgently isolated from the herd and treated with the use of the medical preparations "Griseofulvin", "Ketoconazole" or "Itraconazole".
Pathoanatomical diagnosis of pigs diseases
In some cases, diseases of pigs with strong immunity, proceed haphazardly, turning into a chronic form. With similar symptoms, pathogens are found only during the post-mortem examination of carcasses.
The analysis carried out by specialists of the veterinary laboratory allows not only to identify the carrier of infections, but also to identify pigs that have been in contact with him.
Be sure to start monitoring such pigs. If you identify the slightest suspicion of the presence of the disease, be sure to invite a veterinarian and proceed to preventive treatment of the entire population.
Put a class if the article was interesting and useful for you.
Write in the comments how you treat your pets.