In the article we will describe how to feed pigs to grow quickly, because it has a great impact on the profitability of pig farms. The provision of favorable conditions and high-quality food will make it possible to recoup all investments in a short time. The increase in the mass of livestock develops the farm, but in itself is a laborious and complex process. Consider various options for increasing live weight in large farms.
Selection of piglets
In young individuals in a pig farm there are two ways: either to eat off, or to multiply (on the tribe). To feed the young, which appeared in winter or early spring is more profitable from an economic point of view. This makes it possible in the summer to grow it on garden waste and grass.
In order to grow a pig of the desired weight, its age is taken into account. It is better to work with an animal that is at least 1 month old, since it is easier to accustom him to the "adult table". At 1.5-2 months, the young can already eat on their own.
Pigs that they quickly gain weight in the future, selected for some qualities. Individuals with a long body, a wide back and strong legs are appreciated.
While running and walking, a pig should not choke and wheeze. A good indicator is a good appetite. Also, babies should be completely weaned from the sow.
After birth, the main food of pigs is breast milk. More information about the diet of babies can be found in the article "Feeding suckling pigs". Solid food in their diet is introduced gradually. Barley, corn, peas begin to feed after 5 days of life in order to learn to chew. If they don’t learn how to chew food well, the weight gain will be bad.
Sosuns are given iron injections with Ferroglukantak, because milk lacks this element. If the content in the pigsty is free-flowing, the piglets are irradiated with ultraviolet light indoors. It helps to increase the amount of vitamin D in the blood, raise hemoglobin and improve metabolism.
Porridge, succulent feed, roots - this is the same diet before weaning pigs. Use supplements from a mixture of vitamins, microelements. Weight of calves during weaning should reach 18-20 kg.
Young males who are raised for meat are castrated while still under the sow. It is necessary that after slaughter the meat does not have an unpleasant smell. More boars (castrated pigs for fattening) will gain weight faster.
Fattening only healthy
10-15 days after weaning babies from the sow, active feeding of healthy individuals begins. Feeding piglets that are poorly developed and painful, not economically viable. This feed consumption, loss of time, therefore, losses in business. Therefore, they are sent for slaughter.
If you properly feed the animals, create the same conditions for all healthy youngsters, the hogs grow more actively than the females, however, the last carcasses produce more meat.
At 1.5 months, when the pig is taken away from the sow, he eats dry and wet food. From the second month, corn, buckwheat, and bran are removed from the diet. This product reduces the meat mass, increasing the sebaceous. A large amount of oats, oilcake, soybeans leads to an abrupt growth, loose meat and yellow fat.
Feeding animals from two months
Here is what an approximate feeding ration looks like after 8 weeks of piglet life. The daily rate of skimming per individual is 600 ml as the basis. 150 g of grain are added to it, 250 g of root crops, 250 g of boiled potatoes and derti are added to each, 100 g of herbal flour are added to it. Chalk (15 g) and salt (10 g) are obligatory minerals. The body weight of young offspring should reach 21 kilograms (maximum 25).
From 2.5 to 4 months, pigs are actively developing. For the rapid growth of pigs provides comfort and balanced, fresh food. Well-cooked oat, pea and barley porridge are perfect. Dairy products also contribute to the rapid weight gain of young stock.
Potatoes, carrots and grass are not excluded from the diet. With the onset of cold weather, piglets are given chopped, silage, hay dust and vegetables in double quantity.
Grind and sprinkle with salt
In all cases of fattening pigs on farms, you must follow the rules that are immutable for pig breeding:
- you can not feed the remnants of yesterday's food, everything is just fresh;
- when grain, vegetables and vegetation are added to the main feed, all of this is crushed for better absorption by the body of the pig;
- the temperature of food should be cool, not hot;
- proteins and amino acids are barley, soy, fish meal and calcium-containing products, they are added to the main meal;
- salt must be present in food - up to 40 g, for better digestion of food by the stomach of pigs.
Compliance with these rules will provide animals with good nutrition and protect against many diseases, which means they will grow well and gain weight quickly.
In pig breeding, low feed costs are a good indicator, but at the same time pigs have a good weight gain. This is a feed conversion with a low ratio (the ratio of feed spent per unit of product produced, for example, to 1 kg of weight gain). If it is high, then it means food is spent a lot and the maintenance of animals is unprofitable.
Each pig fattening technology was developed to produce different products (meat, bacon, lard) on favorable terms. We will tell about each of them below.
Time to gain weight
Feeding pigs for meat begins after the rearing of piglets is completed. By this time they weigh 50 kg, and sometimes more. The diet includes even more nutritious foods and concentrates. Next, we will explain in detail how to do it correctly so that the weight gain does not slow down.
In the first place in the diet of pigs for fattening put concentrated feed. On the second - juicy and coarse ingredients. If piglets eat dry food, they need to be given plenty of water to avoid constipation. Unlimited drinking also contributes to rapid growth. A pig should eat up and eat at one meal as much food as it needs for full saturation. If there is access to pasture, animals are released, the average time for walking is 5-7 hours daily.
Fattening pigs are divided into meat (including bacon) and greasy. Now consider what feed pigs in pig farms for different products.
From about 3 months of age, a pig of any breed and body builds up fattening for meat. It lasts until the moment the individual reaches 100-121 kilograms.
Meat type of fattening is divided into low-intensity and intensive. The first option is usually used when there is a lot of non-nutritional feed. Pigs will gain weight slowly and not more than 100 kg.
The second option begins with the preparatory stage, when the pig is 2.5 months old. It ends in 5 months, and then comes the final stage, which lasts 2 months. With intensive feeding up to 5 months, the average daily weight gain reaches 500 g, and in the second period - 600 g. If you plan to feed a pig at home, you can focus on the same terms.
Pig farms usually work on a dry type of feeding. This is convenient from the point of view of sanitary and hygienic standards, and it is also possible to carry out the process of feeding pigs automatically. At the same time, balanced dry feed and feed mixtures are supplied. The composition is selected depending on the age of the animal and the type of fattening.
Achieve low fat
Pig fattening is the most effective and popular on pig farms. Usually the fattened pig feeds on feeds that can be attributed to the first group - rye, pumpkin, wheat, peas, combined silage, dairy production waste. As a result, the products are soft, soft and juicy with a thin layer of bacon.
Potatoes, wheat bran, buckwheat and corn (the second group) make the meat of pigs loose. Fish waste, oats and cake (the third group) give it an unpleasant taste.
The best ratio in the menu is considered to be 40% of the feeds of the first group and 60% of the second. If food products of the third group are used, they can be taken 20%, the second - 50%, and the first - 30%. When 2 months is left before slaughter, the third feed should be completely excluded from the diet.
Pig nutrition for rapid growth is best organized in warm periods - in spring or summer, because there is access to inexpensive and nutritious food. Green food at this time is 30% of the diet. Also abundant melons, roots, legumes. In winter, they are replaced by a combined silo, grass meal.
Diet and daily increase in age
A balanced diet helps pigs gain a good mass. If you take the feed unit, it should be 150 g of digestible protein. With its lack of piglets cease to grow, but the fat mass increases.
Vitamin supplements are injected into pigs' food. Essential amino acids are lysine, methionine and tryptophan. With such elements, the feed consumption will be less, and the weight gain will be good.
Toward the end of fattening, nutrition is increased to 90%. For example, half the diet - potatoes, the other half - concentrate. Protein at the same level - 150 g. Juicy feeds can also be added - beets, dairy waste. Salt per day - up to 40 g. Vitamin balance is maintained by herbal flour, fodder yeast, and concentrates.
The table shows approximately what is better to feed the pigs and according to what standards, in 6 months they should gain up to 100 kg of weight:
Diet for accelerated weight gain - twice a day with an unlimited amount of clean water in the drinker.
Growing animals on bacon is a bit different. And the result depends on what the piglets are fed for rapid growth. After all, bacon pork has a little bacon and delicate flavor.
First of all, it is necessary to purchase piglets of special bacon breeds or meat-grease, for example, landrace. Consider how to grow animals of bacon type in a pig farm.
To get bacon pork, youngsters are sent to be fattened from 2-2.5 months. In six or seven months, their weight should reach 100 kg. Weight gains per day in the amount of 500 g, and in the final fattening period, and all 700 g. Here all attention is paid to digestible protein. Thanks to him, there is increased muscle formation.
Consider how pig feeding makes bacon products high quality. In the first stage of weight gain, corn, oat grains, bran, various fish waste, cake and meal are given. This is all completely excluded when there are two months left before slaughter. At this time, switch to barley, the amount of which is 70% of the total. Additional feed - peas, millet, boiled or fresh potatoes and grass legumes.
In the winter, pigs feed on the basis of concentrates (80%), and as an additive to them, products containing animal protein (10%), succulent feed and grass meal range from 5 to 10% of the diet.
Approximate table, which indicates how much feed a pig needs for bacon fattening:
More concentrate - more fat.
In pig farms, fattening of the pigs that were culled is often continued. Usually these are adult queen, boar, and rearing. They are engaged in for 2-3 months. If at the beginning of fattening the individual must weigh at least 100 kg, then by slaughter the weight grows and reaches 200 kg.
In the diet of these animals should be present carbohydrates with less protein. For the first month of fattening, bulky feeds make up 50%. These are silage, potatoes, root crops, food and grain waste.
In the last period, the main feed product are concentrates that make up 70 or 100% of the diet. Ideally, the daily weight gain can be 1 kilogram, and the layer of fat obtained at slaughter - from 7 cm.
The approximate daily ration per pig fed fat, in the summer, should consist of 4 kg of green fodder, 3.5 kg of pumpkin, 3 kg of concentrate, 50 g of salt.
For an accelerated weight gain, supplements for pigs are necessary, even if the feeding is completely balanced. Growing animals in pig farms will be more intense with growth promoters. These are antibiotics, mineral and tissue preparations, and vitamin formulations.
Feed additives contribute not only to accelerated growth, but also to a good metabolism and digestion. They also help to cope with certain diseases in pigs. When using such additives decreases the amount of food consumed. One of the well-known growth promoters is Oksinorm F. It is natural, used for pigs and poultry at the rate of 100 g per 10 kg of feed.
There are special premixes that help a grown pig to have tasty and high-quality meat and lard.
In the article "Feeding pigs for rapid growth at home," you will learn the details of fattening in the farm.
Life in a stable
In pig farms pigs are kept in groups that are formed depending on the type of fattening. On meat - 100 heads, 50 - on bacon, 30 - on fat. Pigs are selected by weight.
If pigs are raised for meat or bacon, then the pigsty should be spacious. During the preparatory period is provided a place for walking. In the final, when the animals have almost gained weight, they are preparing a closed place, but not close.
Individuals who have gained the desired weight are no longer fed 2 days before slaughter.
If there are places behind the partition in the barn where pigs are planted for fattening, then the wall height should be 1 m. At the same time, the room should be whitened and disinfected in a timely manner.
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