Breeding and raising pigs at home to provide for their families often becomes a source of income for villagers. Thanks to modern technologies, livestock breeders can already feed piglets to slaughter weight of 120-130 kg by 9-10 months. On average, each carcass receives about 70-80 kg of high-quality meat and lard, which are sold on the markets or in the wholesale and retail network without any problems at a fairly high price.
Fast growing omnivores
Breeding pigs for meat and fat in their own farmstead today is quite affordable for beginner breeders. Piglets are omnivores, feeding on almost any plant and animal food, as well as waste from the table of their owners.
Pigs quickly gain weight, are unpretentious in content, have strong immunity, and are able to withstand the harsh conditions of the Russian climate (although they require heating of the pigsty in the winter).
Due to the peculiarities of the digestive system, pigs absorb more than two thirds of the nutrients contained in the feed and grow very quickly. The output of meat and fat from each carcass can reach 85%, while in cattle it rarely reaches a figure of 50-60%.
Pigs quickly reach reproductive age, and each pregnant sow is capable of bringing two offspring annually, each of which is guaranteed to be 12-14 pigs.
Simple content with high income
If you decide to breed pigs at home, then you should decide what you plan to get from your activities. You can choose the cultivation of 1-3 pigs for personal consumption, or to equip a mini-farm that can become a full-fledged workplace for your family members, and bring a stable year-round income.
In the first case, it is enough to equip a small room under the pigsty, which will contain 1-3 fattening hogs, or pig sows, if you decide to specialize in the sale of dairy piglets.
When occupying with industrial pig breeding, it is recommended to immediately build a separate building, which can simultaneously contain 10 or more pigs fed for meat. It is necessary to leave room for one or two boars, as well as up to 3-5 sows, which will be farmed twice a year. Be sure to consult with experts how to grow large animals using the minimum amount of feed.
In this case, you can significantly save on the purchase of breeding material, and the wholesale purchase of feed is always cheaper than buying them in retail.
Very profitable business
The industrial rearing of piglets at home will certainly create certain problems with the sale of meat products, for the sale of which in the market to some of your family members will need to spend a lot of precious time, as well as additional funds for transportation costs.
It is much more practical to hand over bulk pigs to a trading network, whose representatives themselves will come to pick up animals prepared for slaughter. But here there is a problem with the correct design of pre-sale documentation. Large retail chains refuse to cooperate with farmers who do not have the official status of individual entrepreneurs, and do not pay taxes to the state.
Therefore, it is best even at the construction stage of a pig farm to submit the relevant documents to your tax authority, having received the appropriate extract from the EGRIP register. Read more about this in the article "On the breeding and rearing of pigs."
Choose the direction of livestock
Breeding pigs at home for beginners will not become a serious problem if you use our recommendations.
First, analyze the market and find out what is most in demand in your region. It may be:
- low fat or fatty pork;
- thick fat with meat layers;
- bacon with thin layers of fat.
Each of these products differs in its characteristics and price, so the study of demand is a very important point for a novice breeder.
Based on this analysis, you need to choose the breed of pigs, which you will breed. It is not recommended to keep on the farm piglets of different breeds, because when crossing the offspring loses the characteristics of the original forms, and the quality of meat and fat decreases.
Follow this rule, even if you are not going to sell anything, but will only raise animals for yourself.
The best breeds of fattening piglets
To date, the meat-fat characteristics of all breeds of pigs are divided into three groups.
The first is meat and bacon pigs, which are famous for the quality of their meat, but practically have no layer of subcutaneous fat, called lard. Representatives of the landrace bacon breed are very popular; by 7–8 months they reach 100 kg or more, and their tender meat is riddled with the finest streaks of fat.
Also to the meat include and herbivorous Vietnamese pigs, which are somewhat smaller. These piglets are unpretentious in content, they enjoy eating tops, corn stalks, finely chopped straw and hay, gaining 70-80 kg of live weight from 7-8 months, and their low-fat meat is dietary and is particularly popular among gourmets.
Representatives of meat and greasy white large breed (the most common in our country), can reach weight of 150-160 kg by 1 year. They possess meat that meets all quality standards, as well as a fairly thick layer of tasty lard.
Among the fat-meat pigs can be distinguished large black breed, also by 8 months, individuals gain weight about 100 kg. They have a more loose body structure and a thick layer of subcutaneous fat.
Provide warmth and good ventilation.
Breeding and maintenance of piglets in a part-time farm requires construction or refurbishment of the barn, which will serve as a pigsty. Sanitary standards recommend that it should be no closer than 10 m from the dwelling. This will protect you from smells that come from the life of the pigs.
In the pigsty it is required to provide good ventilation and not to allow an increase in the humidity level above 75%.
The temperature at which the pigs feel most comfortable, quickly gaining weight, is 12-20 degrees. Therefore, for the conditions of central Russia with low winter temperatures in the pigsty it is required to equip the heating system.
You can choose how to grow pigs, using our recommendations. If your compound is small and you do not have the opportunity to allocate a platform for free-walking or stall-walking breeding of pigs, then it is best to use the stall feeding method.
With him, the pigs are constantly in their pens. They move less, not wasting energy, which is used to build muscle and accumulate fat.
Such pigs grow rapidly, but do not have good health, as a result of which they require regular monitoring by a veterinarian. Read more in the article "On systems and methods of housing pigs."
Literate arrangement pigsty
It is necessary to calculate the volume of the pigsty in such a way that there should be at least 2.5 square meters per one fattening pig. m, and for an adult pig or boar - 5 square meters. m square.
There are several traditional methods of keeping pigs, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Pigs can be kept in one common pen or in pairs, separating the fattening pigs from castrated hogs.
For novice pig producers, the method of growing pigs according to Canadian technology is perfect. Feeding piglets are kept in one spacious pen, which is not heated in winter.
Acceptable temperature in the pigsty is maintained by rotting straw bedding, which is poured onto the floor of the pen as it is polluted, and no more than 2-3 times a year is replaced.
The developers of this technology claim that it can significantly reduce the cost of treating pigs, because the harsh living conditions strengthen the piglet’s body, and feeding from one common feeder and rare harvesting frees the farmer from unnecessary duties. Read more in the article "Peculiarities of keeping pigs at home".
Rules for choosing piglets
It is best to acquire piglets at the age of 1.5-2 months, when they are already accustomed to self-feeding by adult feed and have the necessary vaccines against infectious diseases.
Choosing breeding dairy pigs for the purpose of sale, be sure to make timely vaccinations with appropriate records at the vet.
If you are going to fatten piglets for meat, then buy them from one owner. Pigs from one farrowing are more friendly and less likely to fight, injuring each other.
For crossbreeding, it is better to purchase hogs and future sows from different owners, which guarantees better survival of the offspring and the absence of defective babies in the farrowing.
When buying piglets, be sure to ask their parents to show them to see what you can expect from them in the future.
Features of the diet of fattening pigs
To feed a piglet for 6 months and reach a weight of 100 kg or more, you will need about 400 kg of concentrated feed. Such feed is saturated with trace elements, vitamins, as well as biologically active substances contained in premixes. It takes a little, and the feed value is very high.
It is best to buy concentrated feeds in bulk, even for a small number of pigs, having previously calculated the amount needed to feed your pets from the moment of purchase to slaughter or sale. Pay attention to the expiration date.
In order not to worry, what to feed animals, if you can not buy feed, remember that the piglets eat fine chopped and pre-steamed grain mixtures. As well as any vegetables and fruits, and when consumed boiled potatoes quickly increase the greasy layer.
If you keep pigs for your own use, you can safely give them food waste from the human table, although when breeding pigs for sale, this is not recommended.
Follow the diet
In order for the pigs to grow quickly, reaching a slaughter weight already in 6 months, you need to correctly draw up a daily diet, which will include not only high-calorie foods, but also the required amount of biologically active substances.
To speed up the set of live weight pigs in food, you need to add premixes containing vitamins and easily digestible microelements, as well as table salt at the rate of 10 g per piglet per day. A great method of speeding up weight gain is yeast feed, which can be found in the article “Feed Yeast for Pigs”.
Feeding piglets is best done at the same time, dividing the daily ration into several approximately equal portions.
Regardless of the method of keeping and breeding, for quick weight gain, the piglets need to be fed 5 to 3 times a day, depending on the age of the animals. The norm for a piglet at 2 months is 2 kg of feed, provided it weighs up to 25 kg. By five months, it increases to 4 kg and weighs up to 60 kg. At 8 months, when the person weighs about 130 kg, the norm increases to 7 kg.
Mandatory Veterinary Surveillance
How to breed pigs, so that they are not sick, we will tell further. This is especially important for start-up individual entrepreneurs who plan to sell grown pork in the markets or donate it to wholesale and retail trade networks.
Pigs have a similar structure to the human body and also suffer from infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted from humans, and vice versa.
The most well-known of these diseases is swine flu strain A1H1, swine fever and swine tuberculosis, pasteurellosis and Aujeszky's disease. They are much easier to prevent with timely vaccination than cure.
More on this in the article "What to do if the pigs have blue ears."
Pigs are prone to helminthiasis, among which pork tapeworm and ascaris are particularly distinguished. If you want to keep your pets healthy and increase their speed of gaining live weight, then stop using poor-quality and spoiled products that may contain dangerous diseases.
Features obtain viable offspring
If you decide to breed reproductive pigs, you should understand how reproduction occurs in these animals, and what is needed to improve the health of dairy pigs.
It is strictly forbidden to keep two mature boars in the pen, which will necessarily fight and may cause serious injuries to each other. Even during the feeding period, they should not be allowed at the same time to the common feeding trough, and it is better to arrange a separate place for meals for each person.
Pregnant sows can be kept in a common pen, but during the farrowing period for them it is necessary to allocate a separate pen in which a special corner for piglets will be equipped. Above such a corner, you need to hang a red lamp that can raise the temperature to 30-32 degrees Celsius, maintaining the health of the little ones.
The process of covering the sow with a boar takes place naturally without human intervention, it is enough to leave the animals in one pen for a day.
About the process of farrowing and nursing of milk pigs can be found by reading the article "How to keep pigs at home."
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